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Similarities and differences between First and second Generation Muslim Empires. First Generation: Umayyad, Abbasid and Delhi Sultanate. Second Generation: Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal. Similarities. Problems of succession Warrior Aristocracy Divided Population

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similarities and differences between first and second generation muslim empires

Similarities and differences between First and second Generation Muslim Empires

First Generation: Umayyad, Abbasid and Delhi Sultanate

Second Generation: Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal

similarities
Similarities
  • Problems of succession
  • Warrior Aristocracy
  • Divided Population
  • Creative Culture where learning was emphasized
differences
Differences
  • Earlier ones enjoyed monopoly on trade
  • Later empires had substantial land based militaries
  • Later empires began losing edge to Europeans
i origins
I. ORIGINS

Babur (1500s)

  • Key Ruler:
    • Moved into N. India
  • Gunpowder
  • Islam
ii empire building
II. Empire Building

Akbar

  • Key ruler:
    • Defeated remaining Indian armies
  • Consolidated rule
  • Improved conditions of women

*Child Marriages ended

Famed Cotton

  • Economic boom—

Indian and Persian

  • Blending of Culture:
  • Policy of Peace between Hindus & Muslims
policy of peace between hindus muslims
Policy of Peace between Hindus & Muslims
  • Govt. Jobs to Hindus
  • Religious tolerance
  • Permitted intermarriage: Akbar takes a Hindu wife
  • Ended Jizya—Special tax on Hindus
iii apex of achievement
III. Apex of Achievement

Jahangir & Shah Jahin

  • Military conquests and expansion
  • Key rulers:
  • Capital moves to Delhi
  • Series of cultural achievements
  • Red Fort and Taj Mahal
  • Beginning of the end…Twilight
  • Draining of the Treasury
slide9

Re growth of cities

Contact w/ each other through textile trade (cotton)

Same time period: 1500 and 1600s

Trade facilitated achievement

slide10

Venice & Florence

Delhi & Agra

Revival of Greek/

Roman heritage

Blending of Indian/

Persian influences

Merchants served as patron of the arts

Rulers were patron of the

arts

Connected Art/Religion

Secular art

Fell behind Europe

in science

Moved ahead of India in science

Apex – sculpture & art (Da Vinci & Michelangelo

Apex – architecture (Taj

Mahal & Red Fort)

slide11

Taj Mahal

Red Fort

Akbar Style-blending of

Persian/Indian influences

iv decline
IV. Decline

Aurangzeb

  • Key ruler:
    • Control all India
  • Purify Islam
  • Reverse female gains
  • Military drains treasury
  • Internal revolts
  • vulnerable
ad