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Salt: The Universal History. Allie Pierce, Elizabeth Horn, Lexa Barrott. Image from: theshiksa.com. What is Salt?.

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salt the universal history

Salt: The Universal History

Allie Pierce, Elizabeth Horn, LexaBarrott

Image from: theshiksa.com

what is salt
What is Salt?
  • By definition, salt is acrystallinecompound, sodium chloride, NaCl, occurring as a mineral, a constituent of seawater, etc., and used for seasoning food, as a preservative,etc.
    • Source: dictionary.refrence.com

Image From: American.com

what makes salt
What Makes Salt
  • Sodium
    • Chemical Symbol: Na
    • Atomic Number: 11
    • Alkali Metal; has only one valence electron in its outer shell; making it very reactive.
  • Chlorine
    • Chemical Symbol: Cl
    • Atomic Number: 17
    • Halogen; has only one valence electron in its outer shell; making it very reactive.

Image By: Greg Robson

Image By: Greg Robson

Image By: Dennis S.K

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how does salt form
How Does Salt Form?

Ionic Bonds Formed

+

=

Image From: chemistry.about.com

Sodium: Reactive Metal

Chlorine: Reactive Gas

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Salt: Unreactive Chemical Compound

Both elements are posionous to humans on their own, but when combined they become a compound that is essential to all walks of life.

how salt affects other forms of life
How Salt Affects Other Forms of Life
  • Autotrophs
    • Halophytes have special membranes to limit the rate of diffusion of the salt in the roots.
    • Algae are photosynthesizing protists that have a body system equipped to decrease the salinity levels of the water they live in.
  • Heterotrophs
    • All domestic and wild animals need salt.
    • Cows and Sheep need salt so much that the location of salt becomes engrained in their memory so they know where to return when they become salt deficient.
    • Animals need salt more than plants

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how salt affects humans
How Salt Affects Humans
  • Too Much Salt:
    • Hypernatremia: Caused by an excess of salt.
      • It can cause high blood pressure, dehydration, osteoporosis, ulcers, and gastric cancer
  • Too Little Salt:
    • Hyponatremia: Caused by too little salt
      • One of the most common electrolyte disturbances.
      • Can occur when there is an excess of water and a deficiency of salt in the body.
      • Can cause swelling of the brain and/or death.

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a brief history of salt universal history
A Brief History of Salt: Universal History
  • Sodium and Chlorine were formed when stars began, and their hydrogen atoms fused their nuclei together to form heavier atoms.
  • Elements as heavy as sodium and chlorine formed in stars 4 times heavier than the sun.

Sodium and Chlorine form in stars with a similar mass to that of Betelgeuse, pictured above.

Image from: luiscalcada.scienceoffice.org

geological formation of salt
Geological Formation of Salt
  • Salt Lakes
    • Salt lakes occur when saltwater lakes evaporate.
    • Salt flats and other minerals remain.
    • Salt lakes most likely will occur in mountainous regions.
      • Example: The Great Salt Lake, Utah
  • Salt Domes
    • Salt is formed under the earth, and is pushed up to form salt domes.

Image From: geochaching.com

a brief history of salt geography
A Brief History of Salt: Geography
  • Salt has determined the location of many cities globally.
  • One of the many cities formed around salt deposits is Detroit, MI.
    • The salt in Detroit was a saltwater basin that covered nearly all of the state of Michigan. The water evaporated and left vast amounts of salt.

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primary uses of salt health sciences
Primary Uses of Salt: Health Sciences
  • Salt has many health related uses:
    • Iodized Salt
    • Dead Sea Salt
    • Himalayan Salt
    • Lithium Chloride
    • Bath Salts: Actual Bath Salts (right)

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primary uses of salt culinary
Primary Uses of Salt: Culinary
  • Salt has many culinary uses
    • Salt has been used as a preservative for many centuries.
    • Salt is also one of the most common seasonings.

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primary uses of salt industry
Primary Uses of Salt: Industry
  • Salt also has many industrial uses.
    • Glass
    • Detergents and soaps
    • Chemicals and petrochemicals
    • Paper
    • Textiles
    • Ironworks

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a brief history of salt etymology
A Brief History of Salt: Etymology
  • Many phrases and words were coined by the use of salt in many cultures.
    • The word salary was introduced by the Egyptians, who paid their workers in salt.
    • The word salad was introduced by the Greco-Romans, who used salt to preserve their lettuce and other vegetables.
    • The phrase, “Not worth his salt,” was used by the Greco-Romans who traded salt for slaves.

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a brief history of salt old world history
A Brief History of Salt: Old World History
  • Humans have been using salt for many centuries.
    • The Chinese were one of many cultures to enforce a salt tax. They also were some of the first to use salt for pharmaceutical purposes.
    • The Egyptians also had a salt tax. They also used salt in the mummification of the dead, to embalm the corpses.

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a brief history of salt new world history
A Brief History of Salt: New World History
  • During the Revolutionary War(1775-1783), one of the British war tactics was to cut off all of the Americans’ salt resources. The Americans began to make their own salt to aid the Patriot soldiers.
  • The Erie Canal was built to transport salt from Syracuse, New York all around the world.
  • Gandhi Salt March

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a brief history of salt religion
A Brief History of Salt: Religion
  • Buddhism
    • In Buddhism, salt is used to ward away evil spirits.
      • For example, in Sumo Wrestling, the Buddhists sprinkle salt all around the ring to ward off the spirits during their wrestling match.
  • Christianity
    • Salt is mentioned in the Bible over 30 times.
      • For example, in the book of Genesis, Lot’s Wife turns into a pillar of salt when she disobeys God.

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salt in the economy
Salt in the Economy
  • Salt is a multi billion-dollar industry.
  • Salt was used as both a tax and a form of currency for many centuries.
  • In ancient times, salt was traded ounce-for-ounce with gold.

Image From: flickr.com

how salt is mined
How Salt is Mined
  • There are 3 basic mining techniques. The environment determines the method used to obtain the salt.
    • Solar Salt: we get sea salt from oceans and saline lakes.
    • Rock Salt: produced by excavating a shaft that allows miners to access salt deposits and break them into sizeable pieces.
    • Evaporated Salt (Refined Salt): by solution mining the underground deposit of salt and removing the water from the brine, the salt is pumped to the surface.
the future of salt
The Future of Salt
  • Shouldn’t the use of salt be regulated?
    • All walks of life rely on salt.
    • Example: oil
    • Nearly all people rely on oil, but there are only a few oil deposits globally.
  • The supply of salt is never limited.
    • Large supply of salt both underground and in our oceans.
    • Salt is very easily attained.
    • Salt is always in demand, but is never lacking in supply.
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