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Getting Power from Plastic – Solar Power Generation Using Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures. By Dave Black and Shashi Paul. Solar Power. World energy demand increasing Photovoltaics currently <1% Two types Conventional Semiconductor (CSC) Excitonic Semiconductor (XSC).

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Getting Power from Plastic – Solar Power Generation Using Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

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Getting power from plastic solar power generation using blends of organic polymers and nanostructures

Getting Power from Plastic – Solar Power Generation Using Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

By Dave Black and Shashi Paul


Solar power

Solar Power

  • World energy demand increasing

  • Photovoltaics currently <1%

  • Two types

    • Conventional Semiconductor (CSC)

    • Excitonic Semiconductor (XSC)


Types of solar cell

Types of Solar Cell

  • First Generation (CSC)

  • Second Generation (CSC)

  • Third Generation (CSC)

  • Organic (XSC)

  • Hybrid (XSC)


Csc device structure

Encapsulation

P-N junction

Top Contact

Bottom Contact

CSC Device Structure

Typical 1st and 2nd generation CSC solar cell structure


Csc device structure1

CSC Device Structure

Top Contact

Anti Reflection

coating

Top Cell

(GaInP)

Tunnel Junction

Middle Cell

(GaAs)

Bottom Cell

(Ge)

Substrate

(Ge)

Bottom Contact

3rd generation CSC multijunction


Xsc device structure

Al/Ag electrode

Exciton blocking layer

Active layer

PEDOT:PSS

ITO transparent

electrode

Transparent Substrate

XSC Device Structure

Typical organic heterojunction solar cell structure.


Why organic

Why Organic?

  • Potentially Cheap

    • Materials expensive now

    • Price decreases as production increases

  • Quick to produce

    • Simple processes

      • Sputtering

      • Spin coating

      • Thermal Evaporation

      • Printing

  • Flexibility

    • Plastic substrates

    • Clothing

    • Fabric (already used by US Army)

The Voltaic Generator, by New York-based Voltaic Systems, is the first solar bag powerful enough to charge a laptop. Photograph: PR


7 stages of excitonic charge generation

7 Stages of Excitonic Charge Generation

  • Photon incoupling

  • Photon absorption

  • Exciton formation

  • Exciton Migration

  • Exciton Dissociation

  • Charge Transport

  • Charge collection

h+

e-

Exciton

h+

Nano-particle

e-


What is emterc doing

What is EMTERC Doing?

  • Next generation hybrid PV

    • Novel blends of polymers and nanostructures

    • Increased efficiency

    • Increased absorption

    • Low cost?


Permittivity

Permittivity

  • Increased Permittivity

    • Tune Debye Length

    • Control exciton type

    • Increase diffusion length

  • Barium Titanate

    • High permittivity

    • Ferroelectric

    • Tetragonal structure


Debye length

Debye Length

Debye length defined as:

The scale over which mobile charge carriers screen out electric fields

As LD increases so does charge separation.


Increasing permittivity

Increasing Permittivity

Increase in relative permittivity with increasing concentration of barium titanate with phosphonic acid ligand.


Increasing photoconductivity

Increasing Photoconductivity

Increase in photo-conductivity in light and dark conditions for polymers with and without “novel” material.


The emterc hybrid

The EMTERC Hybrid

  • Uses blend of polymer and NP

  • Has diode like behaviour

  • Difference between light and dark states

  • Work in progress


Future work in emterc

Incorporating Nanostructures:

Improve the number of incident photons captured by the solar cell

Improve the number and type of excitons produced from incident photons

Increase the exciton diffusion length

Increase the number and quality of interfacial boundaries

Future Work in EMTERC

Transparent electrode

Nanowires

Aluminium electrode

Active polymer matrix


Any questions

Any Questions?


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