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Getting Power from Plastic – Solar Power Generation Using Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures. By Dave Black and Shashi Paul. Solar Power. World energy demand increasing Photovoltaics currently <1% Two types Conventional Semiconductor (CSC) Excitonic Semiconductor (XSC).

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Getting Power from Plastic – Solar Power Generation Using Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

By Dave Black and Shashi Paul


Solar power
Solar Power Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • World energy demand increasing

  • Photovoltaics currently <1%

  • Two types

    • Conventional Semiconductor (CSC)

    • Excitonic Semiconductor (XSC)


Types of solar cell
Types of Solar Cell Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • First Generation (CSC)

  • Second Generation (CSC)

  • Third Generation (CSC)

  • Organic (XSC)

  • Hybrid (XSC)


Csc device structure

Encapsulation Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

P-N junction

Top Contact

Bottom Contact

CSC Device Structure

Typical 1st and 2nd generation CSC solar cell structure


Csc device structure1
CSC Device Structure Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Top Contact

Anti Reflection

coating

Top Cell

(GaInP)

Tunnel Junction

Middle Cell

(GaAs)

Bottom Cell

(Ge)

Substrate

(Ge)

Bottom Contact

3rd generation CSC multijunction


Xsc device structure

Al/Ag electrode Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Exciton blocking layer

Active layer

PEDOT:PSS

ITO transparent

electrode

Transparent Substrate

XSC Device Structure

Typical organic heterojunction solar cell structure.


Why organic
Why Organic? Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • Potentially Cheap

    • Materials expensive now

    • Price decreases as production increases

  • Quick to produce

    • Simple processes

      • Sputtering

      • Spin coating

      • Thermal Evaporation

      • Printing

  • Flexibility

    • Plastic substrates

    • Clothing

    • Fabric (already used by US Army)

The Voltaic Generator, by New York-based Voltaic Systems, is the first solar bag powerful enough to charge a laptop. Photograph: PR


7 stages of excitonic charge generation
7 Stages of Excitonic Charge Generation Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • Photon incoupling

  • Photon absorption

  • Exciton formation

  • Exciton Migration

  • Exciton Dissociation

  • Charge Transport

  • Charge collection

h+

e-

Exciton

h+

Nano-particle

e-


What is emterc doing
What is EMTERC Doing? Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • Next generation hybrid PV

    • Novel blends of polymers and nanostructures

    • Increased efficiency

    • Increased absorption

    • Low cost?


Permittivity
Permittivity Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • Increased Permittivity

    • Tune Debye Length

    • Control exciton type

    • Increase diffusion length

  • Barium Titanate

    • High permittivity

    • Ferroelectric

    • Tetragonal structure


Debye length
Debye Length Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Debye length defined as:

The scale over which mobile charge carriers screen out electric fields

As LD increases so does charge separation.


Increasing permittivity
Increasing Permittivity Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Increase in relative permittivity with increasing concentration of barium titanate with phosphonic acid ligand.


Increasing photoconductivity
Increasing Photoconductivity Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Increase in photo-conductivity in light and dark conditions for polymers with and without “novel” material.


The emterc hybrid
The EMTERC Hybrid Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

  • Uses blend of polymer and NP

  • Has diode like behaviour

  • Difference between light and dark states

  • Work in progress


Future work in emterc

Incorporating Nanostructures: Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures

Improve the number of incident photons captured by the solar cell

Improve the number and type of excitons produced from incident photons

Increase the exciton diffusion length

Increase the number and quality of interfacial boundaries

Future Work in EMTERC

Transparent electrode

Nanowires

Aluminium electrode

Active polymer matrix


Any questions
Any Questions? Blends of Organic Polymers and Nanostructures


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