Disinfection microbiology and chemistry
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Disinfection: Microbiology and Chemistry. J(Hans) van Leeuwen. Introduction. Need for disinfection Alternative disinfectants Disinfection kinetics Disinfectant chemistry. Topics of Discussion. Diseases borne by water Comparison of disinfectants The Ct concept. Viral. Bacterial.

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Disinfection: Microbiology and Chemistry

J(Hans) van Leeuwen

Disinfection


Introduction

Introduction

  • Need for disinfection

  • Alternative disinfectants

  • Disinfection kinetics

  • Disinfectant chemistry

Disinfection


Topics of discussion

Topics of Discussion

  • Diseases borne by water

  • Comparison of disinfectants

  • The Ct concept

Disinfection


Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Viral

Bacterial

Protozoan

Typhoid fever

Para-typhoid

Bacterial diarrhea

Cholera

Legionnaires’ disease

Hepatitis

Rotavirus diarrhea

Amoebiasis

Giardiasis

Crypto-

sporidiasis

Some common water-borne diseases prevented by disinfection

Disinfection


The rate of disinfection

The rate of disinfection

Like most biological processes, disinfection follows a first-order reaction with respect to the number of microbes of a certain species surviving as a function of time at a constant level of a disinfectant

- dN/dt = kN, which is also known as Chick’s Law

dN/N = - kdt (separating variables)

ln N/No = - kt or N = No e-kt (from integration)

Disinfection


The ct concept

The Ct Concept

In disinfection, the ability to inactivate

microorganisms is a function of both

disinfectant concentration and time.

Fractional removal, N/No = Cntm

This is generally simplified to

N/No= Ct

Ct values have been determined for

99.99% virus and 99.9% Giardia removal

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Ozone ct values

Ozone Ct values

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Chlorination

Chlorination

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Chlorinator

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Chlorine gas flow control

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Chlorine contact tank with baffles

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Gravity fed chlorine solution feeder

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Gravity fed chlorine solution feeder

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Ultraviolet irradiation

Ultraviolet Irradiation

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Simple Solar Disinfection

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Solar Disinfection

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Ozonation

Ozonation

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Biomass bulking control

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Effect of ozonation

on sludge settling

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Selective oxidation

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Mebl oxidation

MeBl oxidation

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Effect on protozoa

Effect on protozoa

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Ships ballast water disinfection

Ships’ Ballast Water Disinfection

NUTECH O3, NOAA, NETSCO, UNCW, UWS, ISU, et al.

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Alien Invaders in

our Coastal Waters

- weirder and risky

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Zebra Mussel

Distribution

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San francisco bay 212 exotic species and 140 more suspected

San Francisco Bay:212 exotic species and 140 more suspected

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Cross section of ships showing ballast tanks and ballast water cycle

Cross section of ships showing ballast tanks and ballast water cycle

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Propeller exposed under

unballasted conditions

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Into the Tonsina’s ballast tanks

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

View of ballast tanks from below

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Interconnectivity of ballast tanks in sideview


Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

INSIDE THE OZONE GENERATOR ON THE TONSINA

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Side-stream

ozone

injection

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

Ozone Reactions in Seawater

  • O3 + Br- OBr- + O2

  • OBr- + O3 2O2 + Br-

  • OBr- + O3 BrO2- + O2

  • BrO2- + O3 BrO3-

  • H+ + OBr- HOBr

    HOBr main contribution to total residual oxidant (TRO)

Disinfection


Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

TRO Decay with time

Decrease in TRO (mg/L Br2) in unfiltered Puget Sound seawater over time,

starting at 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/L Br2. Data are the mean + SD of four replicates.

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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Disinfection microbiology and chemistry

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