Unit 1. Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920)
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Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920)
Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.
Chapter 1: The Rise of Corporations
Content Statement: The rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society.
Expectations For Learning: Analyze how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society.
Section 1: Rise of Corporations and Heavy Industry
Content Elaboration: Industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was characterized by the rise of corporations and heavy industry, which transformed the American economy. It marked a shift from a predominance of agricultural workers to a predominance of factory workers. It marked a shift from rural living to urban living, with more people living in crowded and unsanitary conditions.
Effects of Industrialization During the 19th Century
Q: What is Industrialization?
A: When workers and immigrants from other countries moved into urban areas (cities) and began to work in the factories. This began in the US in the 1870’s.
*During the years after the Civil War, people began to move to the cities.
1850’s: 1 in 5 people lived in the city
1915: half of all people lived in the city
Effect #1: Cities Grew
1. Farmers move to the city
a. Find jobs
b. Have better lives
2. Immigrants come to the cities
a. Most immigrants settled in the city
b. Settled together in the cities
3. This created many problems
b. poor housing
c. poor sanitation/dirty
d. rise in crime
Effect #2: US economy became the best
1. immigrants worked AND bought stuff
2. improvements in transportation and communication
3. better technology: machines
4. new business processes: modern corporation
Effect #3: Workplace changes
1. Before IR: small business. Everyone knew each other
2. During IR: large factories and Corporations. Many people operated machines
4. dangerous machines
5. dark and dangerous factories
6. little or no benefits, unemployment, or disability
7. no worker’s compensation
8. Women and Child Workers
Effect #4: Living Conditions
1. housing: tenement houses--crowded apartment buildings where many people lived during the Industrial Revolution
2. no or poor sewers/water
3. dirty and diseases spread
4. high crime
1. J. Pierpont Morgan
• A great organizer
• Bought many businesses, including Carnegie Steel
• Controlled many RR’s
• Worth billions
• Banking mogul
B. Educated himself
C. Became millionaire
• Steel monopoly
• Gave a lot away
B. great organizer
1. great place to start oil business
Section 2: Improved Farming Technology
Content Elaboration: Mechanized farming also transformed the American economy. Production was made more efficient as machines replaced human labor.
New Invention Help Farmers
a. 1875--refrigerated railroad cars
b. McCormick reaper
d. steel-tipped plow
e. combines (reap, thresh, and clean grain)
***All of these allowed farmers to grow more crops with less labor in a short period of time. Food could also be transported all over the country!
Section 3: New Technology in Factories
Content Elaboration: New technologies (e.g., mechanized assembly line, electric motors) made factory production more efficient and allowed for larger industrial plants. Some of the technological innovations that transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the telephone, phonograph, incandescent light bulb, washing machine, skyscraper, automobile, and airplane.
Research a new innovation of the Industrial Revolution.
Use the link below, or use a different source if you want.