2011 11 04
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陸 上 震 測 資 料 處 理 陳 建 文 台灣中油公司探採事業部國資處震測資料處理組 2011/11/04 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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陸 上 震 測 資 料 處 理 陳 建 文 台灣中油公司探採事業部國資處震測資料處理組 2011/11/04. 陸上震測資料處理. 1. 陸上震測資料特性. 2. 靜態修正 (statics correction). 3. 剩餘靜態修正 (residual statics correction). 4. 地滾波 (ground-roll) 消除. 1. 陸上震測資料特性.

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陸 上 震 測 資 料 處 理 陳 建 文 台灣中油公司探採事業部國資處震測資料處理組 2011/11/04

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2011 11 04

陸 上 震 測 資 料 處 理陳 建 文台灣中油公司探採事業部國資處震測資料處理組2011/11/04


2011 11 04

陸上震測資料處理

1.陸上震測資料特性

2.靜態修正(statics correction)

3.剩餘靜態修正(residual statics

correction)

4.地滾波(ground-roll)消除


2011 11 04

1.陸上震測資料特性

  • Onshore seismic acquisition requires an energy input from a “thumper” truck. Geophones arrayed in a line behind the truck record the returning seismic signal.

Vibrator (source)

Geophones (receivers)


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(Dobrin 1988)


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Seismic acquisition offshore


Reflection seimology

Reflection Seimology


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(Dobrin 1988)


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V=940 m/sec f=11Hz λ=85m

V=470 m/sec f=10Hz λ=47m


2 statics correction time shift datum

2.靜態修正(statics correction):修正因地表地形起伏與近地表低速層分布不 均勻所產生之時間偏移(Time shift)量;使 炸點與接受器位於同一基準面(Datum)上。


Uphole time

Uphole time

  • Tuh : Uphole time

  • TD = -(Ts+Tr) (Total static correctoin )

  • Ts= (Es-Ed-Ds) / Vb (Shot statics)

  • Tr = (Er-Ed-Dr)/Vb + Tuh (Reciever statics)

(Yilmaz 1987)


Refraction statics

折射靜態修正 (Refraction statics)

(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


Generalized reciprocal method grm plus minus method

Generalized Reciprocal Method (GRM)(Plus-minus method)

(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Plus-minus method) (Plus term) t+= tABCD + tDEFG – tABFG = 2 * tDelay =2*ZD*cos(ic )/ VW ZD = (t+*VW ) / cos(ic ) * 1 /2 (Minus term)d t_/ d x = 1 / V b


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初達波摘取圖


2011 11 04

初達波摘取圖


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Floating Datum


3 residual statics

3.剩 餘 靜 態 修 正(Residual statics) :以自動計算方式修正因靜態修正誤差產生的 時間偏移量。

  • Surface consistent residual statics:

  • 1.Travel time picking method

  • 2.Maximum stack power method

  • B.Non-surface consistent residual statics :

  • cdp statics (trim statics)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


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Corrections that solely depend on source or receiver locations at the surface , not on raypaths in the subsurface.


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Travel time picking method

(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


2011 11 04

Maximum stack power method


Residual statics

CMP Gathers with field statics applied

1. Velocity analysis

Apply Residual statics

NMO-Correction

Compute Residual statics

2. Velocity analysis

NMO-Correction with new Velocities

Stacking

Residual statics


2011 11 04

(Yilmaz 1987)


2011 11 04

(Yilmaz 1987)


2011 11 04

(Yilmaz 1987)


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(Yilmaz 1987)


4 ground roll

4.地滾波(Ground roll)消除方法:

  • Coherence noise

  • 野外震源及接受器排列設計

  • 資料處理方法(f-k filter 等)


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受波器群組(Digital Group Forming)應用描線間距37.5m

單受波器震測記錄受波器間距6.25m


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SHOT RECORD #41 (5M /chan)


2011 11 04

Signal velocity

region

V1

VL

f2

noise velocity

region

1.0

rejection due to pattern

n * L L

L  (n-1) / n * s

V2

k

0

fL

pattern rejection band

k


2011 11 04

New Geophysical Applications SUPPRES – Band Limited Noise Suppression

SUPPRES performs noise suppression for band-limited noise types.

Example of ground-roll suppression using SUPPRES.


2011 11 04

謝 謝敬 請 指 教


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