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Circulation and gas exchange. Evolution. Open circulatory system Insects arthropods No difference between blood and interstitial fluid = hemolymph Gas exchange: rate of transfer proportional to surface area. Evolution. Fish: 1 atria 1 ventricle Heart to gills, gills to body

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  • Open circulatory system
    • Insects
    • arthropods
  • No difference between blood and interstitial fluid = hemolymph
  • Gas exchange: rate of transfer proportional to surface area.
  • Fish: 1 atria 1 ventricle
    • Heart to gills, gills to body
    • Water is dense with little O2 per volume
  • Gills: countercurrent exchange
    • Gas exchange (blood flows one way while outside water going in opposite direction)
    • Thermo regulation
    • kidney

Insects: system of tracheal tubes, gas exchange throughout

  • Amphibians: 3 chambered heart
  • Reptiles: double circulation
    • Pulmonary circuit + systemic circulation
    • NO mixing of oxygenated and deox blood
our system
Our system
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Double circulation:
    • Right side: pulmonary
    • Left side: systemic

Rate of diffusion proportional to surface area

  • Protists: occurs over entire surface (cnid. Flats)
  • Earthworms and amphibs: across moist skin
  • Gills: warmer, saltier less O2
  • Insects: tracheal tubes: branch out to do exchange with all body parts. Open circ. System NOT involved in transport: O2 CO2
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Lungs not in contact with all cells of body
    • Gap bridged by circulatory system

Pharynx: food and air, epiglottis

  • Larynx: vocal cords (air only)
  • Trachea: cartilage rings
  • Bronchi: 2. Right is more horizontal. More stuff
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli: air sacs and capillaries. 1 cell thick
  • Diaphragm: negative pressure
  • Tidal volume: air in and out with reg breath
  • Residual volume: air that remains in alveoli and tubes after you breath out.
  • Us: air travels down 1 way street.
  • Birds: better: are travels through… no dead ends
controls of breathing
Controls of breathing
  • Pons
  • Medulla
  • Sensors in aorta

Lungs: only site of gas exchange: need circulatory system

  • Breath: negative pressure breathing
  • Partial pressure: gas diffuses from its own high partial press. To low (press. Just this 1 gas contributes to the press. Of air (a mix))

O2 does NOT dissolve easily in blood

  • Need HEMOGLOBIN to hold the O2
  • Bohr shift: increase affinity for heme to O2 when pH is elevated (by high CO2)
  • Myoglobin: protein that binds and stores O2 in muscles
  • Blood:
    • Connective tissue with liquid matrix
    • plasma and 3 types cells
    • Leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets
    • 5L
    • Kidney maintains plasma (90% water)
  • All blood cells from pluripotent cells in bone marrow
  • If low O2
    • kidneys: erythropoietin: increase production of erythrocytes
  • Blood pressure: 2 factors:
    • Cardiac output and peripheral resistance
  • Atherosclerosis:
    • Plaques/ hardening of arteries (cholesterol, LDL)
  • Hypertension: over time, elasticity of vessels
  • Heart attack: MI, coronary arteries
  • Stroke: blocked vessel

Control blood flow to capillaries:

    • Pre-capillary sphincter
    • Smooth muscle: constrict blood flow to that cap.
  • Lymphatic system: lymph drained out of circulating blood. Same
  • Lymph nodes: lots of WBC
pathway of blood
Pathway of blood
  • Right atria (deox blood)
  • Right ventricle
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Lungs : pulmonary circulation
  • Pulmonary vein
  • Left atria
  • Left ventricle
  • Aorta: systemic circulation

Atria: thinner walls

  • Ventricles: stronger
  • Valves: heart sounds are the closing of valves
    • 2 AV (atria to ventricle)
    • 2 semilunar. From ventricle out of heart
  • Pulmonary artery and veins : ONLY Time and artery carries deox and a vein carries oxygenated blood
  • Gap junctions: form communication
  • SA NODE: local control of rate. Special tissue in right atria

Arteries: higher pressure. From heart

  • Veins: pressure from move skeletal muscle.
  • Systole
  • Diastole
  • SA node