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“A group is two or more persons
who are interacting with one
another in such a manner that
each person influences and is
influenced by each other person.”
Small number of people who:
approach whereby they feel mutually accountable.
Simple tasks Complex tasks
Sequential tasks Collective tasks
(tasks are divided up
and summed to produce
Cooperation required Creativity required
Speed important Speed not important
NORMS - Informal rules of behavior that provide some
order to group activities.
-Informal seating arrangements
ENFORCEMENT OF NORMS - this will happen if:
-They facilitate group success or ensure group survival
-They simplify (or make predictable) what behavior
is expected of group members
-They reinforce specific member’s roles within a group
-They help the group avoid embarrassing
- Refers to behaviors that other members
of the group consider threatening,
embarrassing, or irritating enough
that they bring special sanctions to bear
against the person.
facilitate appreciation of the fresh perspective from new members
force the group to test the usefulness and ultimate validity of its norms
provide new and different ideas
detract from productivity due to process losses
1. Mutual Acceptance – getting to know one another, defining purpose, leadership, structure
2. Communication and Decision Making – open discussion of opinions and ideas. Members starts to develop norms of behavior, agreement is reached on goals and often roles
3. Motivation and Productivity – members cooperate, help each other and work toward accomplishing tasks. Members shift away from personal concerns and cooperate.
4. Control and Organization – the team works effectively toward accomplishing goals. Tasks assigned by mutual agreement according to ability. Members work together and are flexible, adaptive and self-correcting.
Four simple rules can encourage divergent thinking while minimizing evaluation apprehension.
CONSENSUS IN DECISION MAKING -
everyone provides input and participate in give-and-take exchanges.
ACTIVE LISTENING -
do not dismiss an idea because of its source; review and summarize what is being said; pay attention to nonverbal; empathize with the speaker’s point of view.
CREATIVE THINKING -
suspend judgment; accept ambiguity; question tradition; be non-judgmental; use brainstorming.
SUPPORTING BEHAVIOR -
supportive climates make people more creative; show understanding and empathy, acknowledge ideas; express appreciation for work.
be honest with yourself and with others; give honest report of emotional reactions experienced from a disturbing message or action
Willingness to discipline
1. has clearly defined, measurable objectives
2. resolves issues rather than avoids them
3. gets ideas and contributions from everyone
4. hears and accepts other’s ideas
5. has members who actively listen to one another, feel empowered to do their best and who support and trust one another
6. has enthusiasm, boldness, and willingness to take risks
7. accepts conflict as a reality and works it through to a successful outcome
8. uses humor to build upon people’s ideas
9. communicates openly and frankly
10. has a strong commitment to goals and the group’s mission
11. uses decision making by consensus
12. uses total participation by all members
13. accepts differences of opinion
14. evaluates its own effectiveness
15. adapts to change