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### Chapter 1

Science Skills

The Big Ideas of Physical Science

- 1. Space and Time- The universe is very old and big. It is about _________ years old and we can observe 700 million billion billion meters in diameter.
- The four dimensions (________________________).

- 2. Matter and Change - Matter is anything with_______________. It can be a ________________. The building blocks are called _______.
- Matter has mass and volume and can change forms.

The Big Ideas of Physical Science

- 3. Forces and Motion- _______________. If you push an object it will_________.

The motion of cars on a city street is captured in this time-exposure photograph. Forces govern changes in the motion of each car.

The Big Ideas of Physical Science

- 4. Energy- Energy exists in many forms. Moving objects have a kind of energy called___________. An object that is not moving has stored energy, or___________.
- Energy can be ______________________________.

Panels on a solar car convert energy from the sun into the mechanical energy of its moving parts

Scientific Method

- Scientific Method _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

STEPS

1. __________________

2. __________________

3. __________________

4.Experiment (include variables)

5. Analyze Data and Draw Conclusions

- State if hypothesis is supported or not supported

6. ___________________

Scientific Method Detailed

- 1&2. Making observations - Information that you obtain from ______________________________ ________________________________________
- 3. Develop a hypothesis -
- _______________ A proposed answer to a question.
- It’s used to answer questions raised by one of your observations. In order for a hypothesis to be useful, _______________________.

Scientific Method

- 4. Experiment or Testing a Hypothesis – Scientists perform experiments to test a hypothesis. In an experiment, _________ ____________________________________________________.
- Variable- variable that causes change in another variable
- __________________________________- variable that causes a change in another variable.
- __________________________________- variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
- __________________________- An experiment in which only one variable, the manipulated variable, is deliberately changed at a time. The responding variable is observed for changes, all other variables are kept constant, or controlled.

- 5. Analyze Data and Draw Conclusions – See if your data from you experiment supports your hypothesis. If it does not, you must______________________, or propose a new one. Then you must design a new experiment.

Scientific Method

- 6. Developing a Theory- Once a hypothesis has been supported in repeated experiments, scientists can begin to develop a theory.
- __________________-A well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results. Theories are never proved. Instead, they become stronger if the facts continue to support them. Sometimes theories need to be revised.
- After repeated observations or experiments, scientists may ____________________________.
- _________________-A statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature. Example: gravity. A scientific law describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it. The explanation is provided by a scientific theory.

Scientific Models

- Model-_______________________________ _____________________________________.
- Scientific models make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe____________.
- It can be of a large object such as a car or solar system.
- It can be of a small object such as a cell or atom.

Section 1.3

- Scientific Notation –______ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________.
- Example:
300,000,000 = 3.0 x 108

- The exponent 8 tells you the decimal point is really eight places to the right of 3.

- Example:
0.00086 = 8.6 x 10-4

- The exponent -4 tells you the decimal point is really four places to the left of 8

- Example:

Scientists estimate that there are more than 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

Math Practice

- Perform the following calculations. Express your answers in scientific notation.
- (7.6 × 10−4 m) × (1.5 × 107 m)
- 0.00053 ÷ 29

- 2.Calculate how far light travels in 8.64 × 104 seconds. (Hint: The speed of light is about 3.0 × 108 m/s.)1.Perform the following calculations. Express your answers in scientific notation.
- (7.6 × 10−4 m) × (1.5 × 107 m)
- 0.00053 ÷ 29

SI Units of Measure

- All measurements need a ________________.
- Example: 5 ft 3 in or 25ºF

- Scientists usually do not use these units. They use a unit of measure called _________ _____________________________________.
- Base Units – more examples on following slide
- ________- straight line distance between 2 points is the meter (m)
- Mass- ________________________________________ _____________________________________________

- Base Units – more examples on following slide

SI Units of Measure

- Derived Units
- These are units that are made from________ _____________________________________.
- _________- amount of space taken up by an object. l x w x h (m3)
- Density- ________________________________. D = m/v (kg/m3)

Metric Prefixes

- 0.009 seconds = 9 milliseconds (ms)
- 12 km = 12000 meters
- Gigabyte = 1,000,000,000 bytes
- Megapixel = 1,000,000 pixels
- Some common prefixes:
- Kilo- 1000
- Hecta- 100
- Deka- 10
- (base unit) 1
- Deci- 0.1
- Centi- 0.01
- Milli- 0.001

Nutrition labels often have some measurements listed in grams and milligrams

Conversion Factors

- Conversion Factors- _____________________ _____________________________________ that is used to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to __________________.
- Examples: 1 km or 1000 m
- 1000 m 1 km
- 1000 m = 100 Dm = 10 hm = 1 km

- Primary conversion factor:
8848m ( 1km ) = 8.848 km

1000m

- Secondary conversion factor:
- 12 km (1000m) (1000mm) = 1.2 x 107 mm or 12,000,000 mm
1km 1m

- Tertiary conversion factor:
- 5 km(1000m) ( 1hr ) = 1.39 m/sec
1 hr 1 km 3600sec

Limits of Measurement

- Precision- A gauge of how_____________________ is
- Significant figures- all the digits that are known in a measurement, plus the last digit is estimated. 5.25 minutes has 3 significant figures. 5 minutes has 1 significant figure.
- The fewer the significant figures, the_________________ __________________________________________.
- The precision of a calculated answer is limited by _______ _______________________________________________.
- Example: Density = 34.73g = 7.857466 g/cm3
4.42cm3

- You must round to 3 significant figures: 7.86 g/cm3

- Accuracy- ____________________________ _____________________________________.
- Example: A clock running fast will be precise to the nearest second, but it won’t be accurate, or close to the correct time.

A more precise time can be read from the digital clock than can be read from the analog clock. The digital clock is precise to the nearest second, while the analog clock is precise to the nearest minute.

Measuring Temperature

- _______________-An instrument that measures temperature, or how hot an object is.
- _____________ scale: water freezes at 32ºF and boils at 212 ºF
- __________: water freezes at 0ºC and boils at 100 ºC
- ºC = 5 (ºF- 32) ºF = 9 ºC + 32
9 5

- ºC = 5 (ºF- 32) ºF = 9 ºC + 32
- The SI unit for temperature is the____________
- ______ is the lowest possible _______________ that can be reached.
- In ºC, it is -273.15 ºC
- K = ºC + 273 ºC = K – 273

Section 1.4

- Organizing Data
- Scientists can organize their data by using data_____________________.
- Data table- the_________ _________________. The table shows two variables - a manipulated variable and the responding variable.

- Line graph
- Line graphs are useful for showing changes that occur in related variables. It shows the _____________ variable on the________ and the _____________ variable on the y-axis.
- Slope- (steepness) The ratio of a vertical change to the corresponding horizontal change.
- Slope = Rise
Run

- Rise represents the ___________________________
- Run represents the corresponding ________________ ____________________________________________.

Direct proportion- Relationship in which the ________________________ ________________________.

_________proportion- Relationship in which the product of the _____________ ________________________.

- Bar graphs and_______or circle graphs can also be used to display data.

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