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be flexible be competitive be innovative keep up with technological developments focus on quality be customer-orientated continuously improve. To survive in the global economy, organisations must:. total quality management multiskilling the learning organisation

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to survive in the global economy organisations must
be flexible

be competitive

be innovative

keep up with technological developments

focus on quality

be customer-orientated

continuously improve

To survive in the global economy, organisations must:
recent organisational responses
total quality management

multiskilling

the learning organisation

business process re-engineering

knowledge management

team-working

recognition of human capital

Recent organisational responses
these organisational responses involve
new tasks

new skills

new knowledge

new ways of working

new roles

new relationships

new attitudes

These organisational responses involve:
hence employees must
be prepared to change, undertake new tasks, learn new skills

be flexible

be able to work without prior experience, clear guidelines, close supervision

challenge traditional ways of thinking and working

think and work ‘outside the box’

Hence employees must:
the outcomes of learning
knowledge

skill

competence

‘know-how’ and tacit knowledge

attitudes

employability

The outcomes of learning
dreyfus et al s model of skills acquisition
stage 1 - novice

stage 2 - advanced beginner

stage 3 - competent

stage 4 - proficient

stage 5 - expert

Dreyfus et al.’s model of skills acquisition
bloom et al s classification of skills
knowledge

comprehension

application

analysis

synthesis

evaluation

Bloom et al.’s classification of skills
kolb s learning cycle
concrete experience

reflective observation

abstract conceptualisation

active experimentation

Kolb’s learning cycle
slide13

Figure 8.1The Lancaster model of the learning cycle

Source: Binsted (1980). Reproduced with permission of MCB University Press Ltd.

barriers to learning within the individual
ineffective learning skills/style

poor communication skills

anxiety

lack of confidence

unwillingness to take risks

fear or insecurity

Barriers to learning:within the individual
barriers to learning within the organisation
lack of learning opportunities

unsupportive boss/lack of support

unsupportive organisational culture

lack of resources

lack of trainer/coach/mentor

lack of time/inappropriate time

inappropriate place

Barriers to learning: within the organisation
positivist understanding of individual development
there is a universal, normative pattern of development

the environment is objective, orderly, stable

These assumptions lead to definitions of development in terms of sequential phases or stages, each with its own developmental task.

Positivist understanding of individual development
alternative approaches to development
recognition of individual’s subjective experiences

significance of individual’s context

Hence focus on individual cases, recognition of the impossibility of generalising

Alternative approaches to development
defining career
The experience of continuity and coherence as an individual moves through time and social space.

the ‘objective career’ - observable movements through organisations and society

the ‘subjective career’ - the individual’s interpretations of those movements

Defining career
stakeholders in the concept of career
individuals

employers

career counsellors

intermediaries, such as employment agencies

the government

society at large

Stakeholders in the concept of career
classification of theories of career according to focus on
factors external to the individual

factors internal to the individual

interaction of internal and external factors

interpretative and social constructionist perspectives

Classification of theories of career according to focus on:
kanter s forms of career
bureaucratic (advancement; security)

professional (craft, skill, reputation; recognition in marketplace)

entrepreneurial (‘creation of new value or organisational capacity’; ‘have only what they grow’)

Kanter’s forms of career
morgan s holographic organisation
building the whole into the parts

redundancy

requisite variety

minimum critical specification

learning to learn

Morgan’s holographic organisation
requirements for effective mentoring
characteristics of mentor

characteristics of protégé

relationship between them

mentoring activities

Requirements for effective mentoring
training adults belbin and belbin
reduce anxiety and tension in learner

create an adult atmosphere

arrange the schedule

correct errors

address individual differences

follow-up after training

Training adults (Belbin and Belbin)
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