Sound waves
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Sound Waves PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Sound Waves. Sound Waves. mechanical, longitudinal waves require a medium may pass through solids, liquids, or gases medium particles move parallel to the motion of the wave has compressions and rarefactions. Speed of Sound. about 342 m/s in air changes with temperature

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Sound Waves

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Sound Waves


Sound Waves

  • mechanical, longitudinal waves

    • require a medium

      • may pass through solids, liquids, or gases

    • medium particles move parallel to the motion of the wave

    • has compressions and rarefactions


Speed of Sound

  • about 342 m/s in air

    • changes with temperature

  • much slower than light

    • speed of light = 300,000,000 m/s


Loudness or Intensity

  • Sound Simulator

  • amplitude (energy) of a wave

  • describes how loud or soft a sound is

  • measured in decibels


Loudness or Intensity

  • Soft

    • Low energy

  • Loud

    • High energy


Pitch

  • Sound Simulator

  • frequency of a wave

    • measured in Hertz

  • how high or low a sound is


Pitch

  • Low f, low pitch

    • Large wavelength

  • High f, high pitch

    • Small wavelength


Pitch & Human Hearing

  • Humans hear between 20-20,000 Hz

    • Ultrasound – too high f for humans to hear

    • Infrasound – too low f for humans to hear


Doppler Effect


Doppler Effect

  • as a sound producing object approaches a receiver (listener) the sound’s pitch increases (high f)

    • the waves appear to sound higher


Doppler Effect

  • as the object moves away, the pitch drops (low f)

    • the sounds appears to sound lower


Doppler Effect

  • occurs for other types of waves as well, but is easiest to relate to sound waves


Doppler Effect

  • Used to:

    • Predict weather

    • Tell instant speed of moving objects

    • Track galaxies


1999

Oklahoma City

F 5 Tornado

St. Nazianz storm May 12, 2000. Caused some schools to be extended.


Acoustics

  • How sound interacts with surroundings


Refraction

Reflection

  • Why does sound travel a long distance over water?

  • Sound waves bounce off the flat surface of a lake

  • Sound waves refract off of warm air over a lake

Warm Air

Cool Air


Room and Building Acoustics

  • Sound behavior in a room depends on many factors:

    • Volume

    • Shape of room

    • Echo patterns


Room and Building Acoustics


Room and Building Acoustics


Room and Building Acoustics

  • Construction Material

    • Energy absorbing: foam, wood, carpet

    • Energy reflecting: metal, concrete


Room and Building Acoustics

  • Audience layout

  • Furnishing

  • Source of Sound


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