Second Intermediate Period (1720-1540). 13 th Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture of 12 th Dynasty. Kush (Nubia). Kush (Nubia). Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region. Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12 th Dynasty it is called “Kush”.
13th Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture of 12th Dynasty
Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region
Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12th Dynasty it is called “Kush”
12th Dynasty pharaohs construct fortresses at cataracts as protection against Kush
Inability of 13th Dynasty pharaohs to upkeep forts, turns them into permanent settlements
-1720 – collapse of unified Egypt meant no support for forts
Some rulers in Lower Nubia claim pharaonic status
Unable to hold of Kush; by 1650 – all of Lower Nubia peacefully accepts Upper Nubian takeover
Egyptian term: hekau khasut “chieftains of foreign lands”
Josephus quoting Manetho:
… incredibly out of parts of the east men of despicable ethnicity marched boldly against the land, and seizing it easily by overwhelming force without fighting a battle. And having taken prisoner those who were the leaders here, they thereafter savagely burned the cities and demolished the gods’ shrines. They treated all the inhabitants most hatefully, slaughtering some, and leading into slavery the children and wives of others.
Canaanites already entering into Egypt; collapse in 1720 probably allowed even more to flow into Delta region.
1650, one group of newcomers able to take over Delta, defeating local rulers - Capitol at Avaris
Shortly after 1650 – 13 Dynasty in Thebes dies out and is replaced by local dynasty (17th Dynasty)
- Paid tribute to Hyksos
- Likely had marriage ties
1. Metal technology – ability to make bronze
2. Military : horse-drawn chariots with spoked wheels; bronze helmets, armor of bronze scales
3. Composite bow
Theban dynasty is subordinate to Hyksos and isolated
Kush (Nubia) and Hyksos form alliance
Thebes builds up army and strike before Kush and Hyksos can attack it
Egyptians control Upper Egypt from Thebes
Nubia (Kush) controls far south
Began the Theban attempt to expel Hyksos from Egypt
Stele commemorating his successful campaigns in the north against the Hyksos
Manages to get all the way to Avaris, but doesn’t take the city
Brother of Khamose
First king of eighteenth dynasty
After 4 attempts, kick Hyksos out of Avaris and out of Egypt.
Campaigns in Nubia
Married to his sister Ahmose Nefertari
Son of Ahmose
Campaigns in Nubia
Memphis – political capital
Thebes – religious capital
First pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings
Not related to Amenhotep by blood – possibly married into royal family
Began with campaigns in south against Nubia
Then moved north against Syria.
Extensive work on the Temple of Amun at Karnak
Younger son of Thutmosis I
Married his half-sister Hatshepsut
Half-sister and wife of Thutmose II ; aunt of Thutmose III
Originally named regent for Thutmose III, but takes throne and becomes pharaoh
“The tribute of the chief of Assur…”
“Behold, his majesty went north capturing the towns and laying waste the settlements of that foe of wretched Naharin… His majesty arrived at the city of Niy, going southward, when his majesty returned, having set up his tablet in Naharin, extending the boundaries of Egypt”
“The tribute of the chief of Shinar [i.e. Babylon]…”
“The tribute of Hatti the Great…”
“Then the ruler of Naharin, the ruler of Hatti, and the ruler of Sangar (Babylon) acknowledged the great victory which I had performed, everyone imitating his neighbor with every present of every foreign country. They spoke from their hearts on behalf of their ancestors, in order to request gifts from his Majesty and in quest of the giving of the breath of life to them.”
Dream Stele – justifies his accession to (or usurpation of?) the throne
During reign of Amenhotep III, the pharaoh began to increasingly focus religion on the Aton, the solar orb; his son Amenhotep IV follows suit
Year 4: began to build city for his god, calling it Akhetaton “Horizon of the Sun Disk” or “The Transfigured Spirit of the Solar Orb”
Moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaton
Year 8 or 9: changed writing of the name Aton, removing hieroglyphs symbolizing sun as falcon
Began to have names of other gods removed from stele, especially Amun.
Akhetaton – “place where Aton is transformed into the glorified being”
Amenhotep IV changes name to:
Akhenaton – proclaiming that he is the transfigured form of the Aton
Complete change in religious beliefs.
Aton was the highest god, and the only other gods were the king and his wife Nefertiti
Afterlife could only be bestowed by the divine royal couple
Special favors could only be asked for from the Aton through the divine royal couple
Worship of no other god was allowed, including all household deities. Evidence that the royal couple became a substituted source of veneration.
Nefertiti disappears from records around year 14 or so (very likely died)
Akhenaton marries Meritaton, one of his daughters and raises her to her mother’s position
Names Smenkhkare (a son?) as co-regent with Akhenaton
Takes Nefertiti’s place as third divinity (along with the Aton and with Akhenaton)
Akhenaton dies in his year 17, less than year later, Smenkhkare dies too
9 or 10 when he gets throne; Ay, father of Nefertiti rules as regent
Tut marries his half-sister
Restoration of old religion.
Dies at age of 18 or 19