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Second Intermediate Period (1720-1540). 13 th Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture of 12 th Dynasty. Kush (Nubia). Kush (Nubia). Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region. Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12 th Dynasty it is called “Kush”.

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second intermediate period 1720 1540
Second Intermediate Period(1720-1540)

13th Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture of 12th Dynasty

kush nubia1
Kush (Nubia)

Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region

Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12th Dynasty it is called “Kush”

12th Dynasty pharaohs construct fortresses at cataracts as protection against Kush

Inability of 13th Dynasty pharaohs to upkeep forts, turns them into permanent settlements

-1720 – collapse of unified Egypt meant no support for forts

kush nubia2
Kush (Nubia)

Some rulers in Lower Nubia claim pharaonic status

Unable to hold of Kush; by 1650 – all of Lower Nubia peacefully accepts Upper Nubian takeover

hyksos 15 th dynasty 1650 1540
Hyksos(15th Dynasty, 1650-1540)

Egyptian term: hekau khasut “chieftains of foreign lands”

Josephus quoting Manetho:

… incredibly out of parts of the east men of despicable ethnicity marched boldly against the land, and seizing it easily by overwhelming force without fighting a battle. And having taken prisoner those who were the leaders here, they thereafter savagely burned the cities and demolished the gods’ shrines. They treated all the inhabitants most hatefully, slaughtering some, and leading into slavery the children and wives of others.


Canaanites already entering into Egypt; collapse in 1720 probably allowed even more to flow into Delta region.

1650, one group of newcomers able to take over Delta, defeating local rulers - Capitol at Avaris

Shortly after 1650 – 13 Dynasty in Thebes dies out and is replaced by local dynasty (17th Dynasty)

- Paid tribute to Hyksos

- Likely had marriage ties


1. Metal technology – ability to make bronze

2. Military : horse-drawn chariots with spoked wheels; bronze helmets, armor of bronze scales

3. Composite bow

hyksos vs thebes
Hyksos vs. Thebes

Theban dynasty is subordinate to Hyksos and isolated

Kush (Nubia) and Hyksos form alliance

Thebes builds up army and strike before Kush and Hyksos can attack it


Hyksos capital at Avaris

Egyptians control Upper Egypt from Thebes

Nubia (Kush) controls far south


Seqenenre II (1559-1554) of the

17th Dynasty

Began the Theban attempt to expel Hyksos from Egypt


Khamose – son of Seqenenra

Stele commemorating his successful campaigns in the north against the Hyksos

Manages to get all the way to Avaris, but doesn’t take the city

ahmose 1550 1525
Ahmose (1550-1525)

Brother of Khamose

First king of eighteenth dynasty

After 4 attempts, kick Hyksos out of Avaris and out of Egypt.

Campaigns in Nubia

Married to his sister Ahmose Nefertari

amenhotep i 1525 1504
Amenhotep I (1525-1504)

Son of Ahmose

Campaigns in Nubia

Memphis – political capital

Thebes – religious capital

First pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings

thutmosis i 1504 1491
Thutmosis I (1504-1491)

Not related to Amenhotep by blood – possibly married into royal family

Began with campaigns in south against Nubia

Then moved north against Syria.

Extensive work on the Temple of Amun at Karnak

thutmosis i
Thutmosis I
  • Ahmose son of Ebana: “His majesty [Thutmosis I] arrived at Naharin (N’-h’-ry-n’ = Mittani in N. Syria)… his majesty made a great slaughter among them.”
  • Ahomse-pen-nekhbet: “Again I served for King Okheperkere [Thutmosis I], triumphant; I captured for him in the country of Naharin (N’-h-ry-n’), 21 hands, one horse, and one chariot”
  • Ineni: “[Thutmosis I] the Good God, who smites the Nubians, lord of might, who overthrows the Asiatics”
thutmosis ii 1491 1479
Thutmosis II (1491-1479)

Younger son of Thutmosis I

Married his half-sister Hatshepsut

thutmosis iii 1479 1425
Thutmosis III (1479-1425)

Hatshepsut (1479-1458)

hatshepsut 1479 1458
Hatshepsut (1479-1458)

Half-sister and wife of Thutmose II ; aunt of Thutmose III

Originally named regent for Thutmose III, but takes throne and becomes pharaoh

Year 24:

“The tribute of the chief of Assur…”

Year 33:

“Behold, his majesty went north capturing the towns and laying waste the settlements of that foe of wretched Naharin… His majesty arrived at the city of Niy, going southward, when his majesty returned, having set up his tablet in Naharin, extending the boundaries of Egypt”

“The tribute of the chief of Shinar [i.e. Babylon]…”

“The tribute of Hatti the Great…”

amenhotep ii 1428 1397
Amenhotep II (1428-1397)

“Then the ruler of Naharin, the ruler of Hatti, and the ruler of Sangar (Babylon) acknowledged the great victory which I had performed, everyone imitating his neighbor with every present of every foreign country. They spoke from their hearts on behalf of their ancestors, in order to request gifts from his Majesty and in quest of the giving of the breath of life to them.”

thutmosis iv 1397 1388
Thutmosis IV (1397-1388)

Dream Stele – justifies his accession to (or usurpation of?) the throne

“The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the cult act, Nebmaatre, chosen of Re, the son of Re Amonhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life; the great royal wife Tiye, may she live. The name of her father is Yuya; the name of her mother is Tuya. Marvels which were brought to his majesty, (life, prosperity, health), the daughter of the Chief (wr) of Nahrin, Shuttarna, Kelu-Heba, and the choicest of her female entertainers: 317 women.”

During reign of Amenhotep III, the pharaoh began to increasingly focus religion on the Aton, the solar orb; his son Amenhotep IV follows suit

Year 4: began to build city for his god, calling it Akhetaton “Horizon of the Sun Disk” or “The Transfigured Spirit of the Solar Orb”

Moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaton

Year 8 or 9: changed writing of the name Aton, removing hieroglyphs symbolizing sun as falcon

Began to have names of other gods removed from stele, especially Amun.


Akh – “glorified being of light”

Akhetaton – “place where Aton is transformed into the glorified being”

Amenhotep IV changes name to:

Akhenaton – proclaiming that he is the transfigured form of the Aton

religious revolution
Religious Revolution

Complete change in religious beliefs.

Aton was the highest god, and the only other gods were the king and his wife Nefertiti

Afterlife could only be bestowed by the divine royal couple

Special favors could only be asked for from the Aton through the divine royal couple

Worship of no other god was allowed, including all household deities. Evidence that the royal couple became a substituted source of veneration.


Smenkhkare (1336-1334)

Nefertiti disappears from records around year 14 or so (very likely died)

Akhenaton marries Meritaton, one of his daughters and raises her to her mother’s position

Names Smenkhkare (a son?) as co-regent with Akhenaton

Takes Nefertiti’s place as third divinity (along with the Aton and with Akhenaton)

Akhenaton dies in his year 17, less than year later, Smenkhkare dies too


Tutankhaton/Tutankhamun (c. 1334-1325)

9 or 10 when he gets throne; Ay, father of Nefertiti rules as regent

Tut marries his half-sister

Restoration of old religion.

Dies at age of 18 or 19