English language arts level 7 lesson 1
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English Language Arts Level 7, Lesson #1. Introduction. Reading requires a number of skills. Today’s topics are intended to enhance your speaking and reading experience. Today’s Objectives. Part 1 Prefixes and how they are used at the beginning of words Part 2

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English Language Arts Level 7, Lesson #1

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English Language ArtsLevel 7, Lesson #1


Introduction

Reading requires a number of skills. Today’s topics are intended to enhance your speaking and reading experience.


Today’s Objectives

Part 1

Prefixes and how they are used at the beginning of words

Part 2

Learn how sentences are built

Part 3

Idiom of the day


Part I - Prefixes

Many American English words come from Greek and Latin beginnings. Today, we will discuss how Greek and Latin prefixes are used in American English words.

Definition: Prefix /prē fiks/ To put or attach before or in front of…


Common Prefixes

“anti-” (against)

“co-” (together)

“demos”(people)

“inter-”(between among)

“mis-” (wrong, bad)

“post-” (after)

“pre-” (before)

“re-” (again, back)

“sub-” (under)

“trans-” (across, beyond)


Prefixes: “Anti-” and “Co-”

Today we will learn two new prefixes: “Anti-” (against) and

“Co-” (together)

Some words that begin with “anti-:”anti-aging and antivirus


“anti-” aging Defined

“anti-aging:” A term for activities intended to slow or reverse aging and extend one’s youthful appearance or life span.

Example usage: The old woman used an anti-aging cream to look younger.


“anti-” virus Defined

“antivirus:” A software program designed to defend a computer against and remove destructive viruses.

Example usage: Most antivirus programs protect computers from viruses and remove any viruses that are found.


The Prefix “co-”

The prefix “co-” at the beginning of a word means: “together,”“with,”“partner,”“assistant,”“equally” or “jointly”

Words that begin with “co-:”

“co-”operate, “co-” founder,

“co-”exist


“co-”operate Defined

cooperate: To act jointly; work toward the same end. Help someone or comply with their requests

Example usage: Susie will cooperate with the police.


“co-” founder Defined

cofounder: An individual who starts a new business jointly with another person or persons.

Example usage: Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs were cofounders of Apple Computers.


“co-”exist Defined

coexist: To live together at the same time or in the same place. (of nations or peoples) It also means to exist in mutual tolerance despite different ideologies or interests.

Example: The peoples of America coexist in relative peace.


More Prefixes

We will learn new prefixes to help us improve our reading.

Next week you will learn to use two new prefixes:

“demos-” (people) and

“inter-” (between, among)


Assignment

To prepare for next week’s prefix lesson, use the internet or a dictionary to find three words that begin with “demos-” and three words that begin with “inter-.”


Break


Part 2 -Sentence Building

One of the basic foundations of good writing is understanding how to build a sentence.

There will be times when we will need to communicate with others, but perhaps we are too far away to speak with them directly.


Sentence Building

We will have to write our thoughts on paper, via email or through texting.

There is a proper way to write our thoughts so that we can be understood by others.


Sentence Writing and Language

We are learning to write sentences because they will also aid in our understanding of how words are used to speak the English language.


The Sentence Defined

A sentence is an independent unit of grammar: it begins with a capital letter, has a subject and verb, and it ends with a period (.), question mark (?), or exclamation point. (!)


An Example Sentence

The dog ate.

This is a complete sentence because it tells what the subject is and what the subject did. “Dog” is the subject and “ate” tells what the dog did. The word “ate” is an action verb. We will discuss verbs in a future lesson.


Diagramming a Sentence

We use a diagram to show the basic parts of a sentence and how those parts are used when we speak.

Subject

Verb

Object


Diagramming a Sentence

First, draw a line:

Then, separate the line into three parts.

Subject

Verb

Object


Parts of a Sentence

The dog ate.

On the line, write the subject (dog) and the verb (ate).

dogate

Subject

Verb


Let’s Add an Object to the Sentence

By telling what the dog ate, we give the sentence an object. The object receives action from the verb.


Let’s Add an Object to the Diagram

The dog ate (what?). Let’s add “the bone.”

dogatebone

Here, we have the subject, verb and object on the diagram line.

Subject

Verb

Object


Modifiers Give More Information

The basic sentence gives information about the subject and the verb and many times, the object. Modifiers give specific information about the subject, verb and object.


Adding Modifiers

Modifiers describe. They tell “which,”“what kind of,”“how many” or “how much about the subject or object.

Add the modifiers “brown” and “old” to the sentence to tell “what kind of” dog and “what kind of” bone.


Example Modifiers

The brown dog ate the old bone. In a diagram, the modifiers (describers) are placed below the part it describes.

dogatebone

old

The

the

brown


Sentence Practice

Take the sentences below apart to show the three a basic parts: the subject, verb and object.

1. The princess wore a hat.

2. The bees made honey.


Answers

1.princessworehat

2.beesmadehoney

Subject

Verb

Object

Verb

Object

Subject


Add Modifiers

For sentence 1, add modifiers to show “what kind of” princess and “what kind of” hat.

In sentence 2, add modifiers to show “what kind of” bees and “what kind of” honey.


Add Modifiers That Describe

1.princessworehat

2.beesmadehoney

Verb

Modifier

Modifier

Verb

Modifier

Modifier


Example Modifiers

The beautiful princess wore a pink hat.

The yellow bees made delicious honey.

Now let’s show the modifiers in our diagrams.


Add Modifiers

princessworehat

bees madehoney

pink

The

a

beautiful

The

delicious

yellow


Some Modifiers are calledAdjectives

Adjectives modify nouns. We will discuss this idea in detail in a future lesson. In the meantime, make your basic sentences more interesting by adding modifiers.


Assignment

Diagram the four sentences below and show the subject (Tell what the sentence is about.)

Show the verb (What action did the subject take in the sentence?)

Show the object (What was done after the verb.)


Diagram the Sentences

1. The boy wrote a story.

2. The mother made cookies.

3. The girl likes candy.

4. The car made a noise.


Diagramming a Sentence

First, draw a line:

Then, separate the line into three parts.

Subject

Verb

Object


Diagram the Sentences

1. The boy wrote a story.

2. The mother made cookies.

Subject

Verb

Object

Subject

Verb

Object


Diagram the Sentences

3. The girl likes candy.

4. The car made a noise.

Subject

Verb

Object

Subject

Verb

Object


Answers

1. The boy wrote a story.

boywrotestory

2. The mother made cookies.

mothermadecookies

Subject

Verb

Object

Subject

Verb

Object


Answers (continued)

3. The girl likes candy.

girllikescandy

4. The car made a noise.

carmade noise

Subject

Verb

Object

Subject

Verb

Object


Practice - Add Modifiers

Give more details about the subject and object by adding modifiers to describe. Put the modifiers beneath the word.


Answers

1. The boy wrote a story.

boywrotestory

2. The mother made cookies.

mothermadecookies

Verb

Modifier

Modifier

Verb

Modifier

Modifier


Answers (continued)

3. The girl likes candy.

girllikescandy

4. The car made a noise.

carmade noise

Verb

Modifier

Modifier

Verb

Modifier

Modifier


Sentence Review

We have learned to take basic sentences apart to show the subject, verb and object. We have also learned to add modifiers to make the sentence more interesting.


Sentence Review

We will refer to the four diagrammed sentences over several grammar lessons in the future. Keep them with you for next week’s lesson.


Break


Part 3 - The Idiom

Idioms are spoken phrases that cannot be found in the dictionary. An idiom is an expression that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words.


Idioms

Look at the following idiom, “on the house.” Do you know what this phrase means? Does it mean that something is attached to a house? Let’s take a look.


Idiom of the Day:“on the house”

The actual meaning is to receive something free from a business.

The hotel room was not ready so they gave us something to drink “on the house.” (in other words, “gave us a free drink” paid for by the business.)


“On the house”

The idiomatic meaning of “on the house”is to receive something free from a business.

Idioms are important to know because they will help you understand spoken words that cannot be found in the dictionary.


Idiom of the Day

During each lesson, you will be introduced to a new idiom which is intended to aid in your understanding of the English language.


Reading a Short Passage

As an enrichment activity, we will read The First Road Trip and answer the questions that accompany the story.

THE FIRST ROAD TRIP.docx


This lesson has ended

It was a pleasure to work with you today. During our next lesson, you will learn more about prefixes, learn how sentences are structured, as well as learn a new idiom. Goodbye until next time.


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