Rappraochment with China. Vietnam War 60’s & 70’s. Bay of Pigs 1961. Containment. Suez Crisis. Iran Hostage 1979. Korean War 1950. Cuban Crisis 1962. SALT Treaty. Space Race. Arms Race. Cold War. Eisenhower’s Administration. Continued Vietnam involvement
60’s & 70’s
Bay of Pigs
Continued Vietnam involvement
- provided economic and military aid to
Suez Crisis (M. East) / Egypt (Africa) 1955
- Egyptian Leader played Soviets and U.S.
against each other
- for $$ to fund the canal along Nile River
- U.S. withdraws its $ offer (after realizing Egypt
was playing both sides)
- Egypt gets mad
- takes over all of canal (limits who can use)
- Israel not allowed to use it Why?
- British, France and Israel sends troops. UN intervenes.
Troops leave and Egypt gets its way.
* Why do Soviets see it as a victory?
- U.S. will defend the Middle East against
- secret flights over Soviet territory
- May 1960 Soviets shot down U-2 plane
- pilot ejected, captured
- Khrushchev cancelled
- tension increases
entering the 1960’s
Why does this matter?
- with loans
- technical assistance
- to gain support votes in UN
- they protected our business interest
- CIA help Shah of Iran
- Increased financial aid and military
- for an invasion of Cuba
- Goal an uprising to overthrow Castro
- on April 17,1961
- 1,400 Cuban exiles landed at (Bay of Pigs)
Bahia de Cochinos
- Everything failed and soldiers taken
- JFK paid $53 million (ransom for the soldiers)
This cartoon refers to the failed Bay of Pigs mission, when Cuban exiles tried to overthrow Castro with the backing of Kennedy, and failed.
- 20% of people had fled to W. Berlin (since airlift)
- Khrushchev wanted all access rd. closed
- Kennedy refused to give up W. Berlin
- Aug. 13 the wall went up
- reduced the flow of E. German refugees
- became a symbol of Communism
Construction of Berlin Wall
- Oct. 14, U.S. plane pictures (Soviets missile bases in Cuba)
- Missiles ready to launch
- Oct. 22, Kennedy informs the nation
- attack from Cuba would trigger an all-out attack on the Soviets
- if U.S.’s promise not to invade Cuba
- JFK agreed
Picture from U.S.
In this cartoon we see Kennedy and Nikita Kruschev, leader of the Soviet Union, trying to keep the beast of "Nuclear War" in his cage. This was drawn shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
JFK and his advisors
President Kennedy leans over the table in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cabinet Room is next to the Oval Office in the West Wing.
October 29, 1962
- sent first U.S. ground troops
- extension of the Suez Crisis
- continuing Arab hostility of Israel's existence
- Israel defends self against Egypt and Syria
- Egypt and Syria supplies by USSR
- U.S. allies with Israel
- Vietnamization the gradual withdrawal of troops
- realpolitik ”realistic politics”
- easing of Cold War tension from late 60’s
- more flexible less hostile approach to dealing
- brought economic & political advantages
- attempt to drive a wedge between USSR
- Nixon’s attempt to divide communist block
- isolate North Vietnam
- SALT Treaty I(Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
- negotiation limiting # and type of nuclear
arms b/t US and USSR
STRONG foreign policy helped ease CW
- used oil as a means to control international politics
- mostly Arabs countries opposed Israel
- embargoed oil shipments to U.S.
*How does it affect citizens of the U.S.?
Map pg. 1022
- peace talks between Egypt and Israel
- mediated by President Carter
- brought momentary peace to the Middle East
- Egypt agreed to recognize Israel
- Israel agrees to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula
Title: Camp David successPublished: Daily News of Los AngelesDate: March 23, 1979About this cartoon: Tthe historic Camp David accord between Israel's Menachem Begin and Egypt's Anwar Sadat that Jimmy Carter arm-twisted into existence began a new era of Mideast peace hope... at least tentative hope.
- limited # of missile launchers each had
- postponed due to USSR invasion into Afghanistan
- US supported the Afghanistan resistance
- Taliban (rebel group) harbored al Qaeda
with the U.S
- U.S. embassy invaded
- taken over by Islamist students
- 53 Americans taken hostage by Iran
- held hostage for 444 days
Sources: Gallup, AP, WSJ.com research NOTES: Plotted points are the averages of all approval polls taken by Gallup in each three-month period of each presidency. The first two points for Johnson and Ford are for polls taken in their first two months. Key dates are marked next to the poll results for the three-month period in which they took place.
Carter made progress with the Camp David Accords, but the Iran hostage crisis ultimately hurt him.
- Ice Hockey “Miracle on Ice”
- increased defense
- tension due to hostage crisis
- more hostages taken in Lebanon in ‘83
- secret arms deal
- would free hostages in exchange for arms
- Israel pass weapons to Iran / U.S. resupply in ‘86
Prime Minister Gorbachev
- advocated glasnost (openness)
- perestroika (economic restructuring)
- signed INF in 1987
- Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
- tensions decreasing
- Nov. 9, 1989 is brought down
Berlin Wall Falls
- Gorbachev introduces democratic ideas
- 14 non-Russian republics declare
independence from the Soviet Union
- new Russian leader, Yeltsin& President Bush
issue a formal statement declaring an
END to the Cold War
- signed START II pact
- cut nuclear arms by 2/3
Space race begins