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Pertemuan I – Konsep Dasar Riset Operasional. Riset Operasinal – 4010102053-Dewiyani. Agenda. Introduction Goals, Objectives and Expected outcome What is management science? What is Analytics, how does it relate to OR/MS? Remarks. Who am I?. Dr. M.J. Dewiyani Sunarto

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Pertemuan i konsep dasar riset operasional

Pertemuan I – KonsepDasarRisetOperasional

RisetOperasinal – 4010102053-Dewiyani


Agenda
Agenda

Introduction

Goals, Objectives and Expected outcome

What is management science?

What is Analytics, how does it relate to OR/MS?

Remarks


Who am i
Who am I?

  • Dr. M.J.DewiyaniSunarto

  • [email protected]

  • 08563062843

  • DosentetapdiSTMIKSTIKOM Surabaya

  • RuangProdi S1 SistemInformasi – Lantai 2 GedungMerah

  • Senin – Jumat : 07.30 – 16.30


Agenda1
Agenda

Introduction

Goals, Objectives and Expected outcome

What is management science?

What is Analytics, how does it relate to OR/MS?

Remarks


Goals objectives and expected outcome
Goals, objectives and expected outcome

Capaian Pembelajaran : Setelah mengikuti mata kuliah riset operasional, mahasiswa dapat menganalisis persoalan optimasi dan pembentukan model dalam proses pengambilan keputusan dengan perhitungan manual maupun hasil output komputer


Materi
Materi

  • Dalam Mata kuliah ini mahasiswa akan mempelajari pokok bahasan- pokok bahasan sebagi berikut:

    • Konsep dasar riset operasional dan pembentukan model.

    • Pengantar program linier dan solusi grafik,

    • Solusi metode simpleks, Analisis post optimal,

    • Model transportasi dan penugasan,

    • Model arus jaringan,

    • Analytical hierarchy process (AHP),

    • Program dinamik,

    • Analisis markov,

    • Diagram pohon keputusan dan teori permainan.


Kesepakatan kita bersama
Kesepakatankitabersama……

  • Apa yang sayaharapkandariAnda ?

    • Datangtepatwaktu – keterlambatan 0 menit

    • Persiapkandirisebelumkuliah – bacaRancanganPelaksanaanPembelajaran (RPP).

    • MembacareferensidanBerlatihsoalsebanyakmungkin

    • Kumpulkantugastepatwaktu.

    • Komposisinilai : 30% UTS, 30% UAS, 40% Tugas Nilai Minimal Kelulusan : B

    • 3 sksberartidalamseminggu :

      • 3 x 50 menitpersiapan

      • 3 x 50 menittatapmuka

      • 3 x 50 menitevaluasi


Kesepakatan kita bersama1
Kesepakatankitabersama……

  • Apa yang sayajanjikankepadaAnda?

    • Datangtepatwaktu – keterlambatan 0 menit

    • MenfasilitasibelajarAnda

    • Mengembalikanpekerjaan/tugasAndadalamwaktumaksimal 2 minggu

    • 3 sksberartidalamseminggu :

      • 3 x 50 menitpersiapan

      • 3 x 50 menittatapmuka

      • 3 x 50 menitevaluasi


Don t be shy
Don’t be shy!

J.E. Stice, Engineering Education, pp. 291-296, 1987



Agenda2
Agenda

Introduction

Goals, Objectives and Expected outcome

What is management science?

What is Analytics, how does it relate to OR/MS?

Remarks


Sejarah
SEJARAH

  • PERANG DUNIA II --> ANGKATAN PERANG INGGRIS

  • TUJUAN : menentukan penggunaan sumber kemiliteran terbatas, dg cara paling efektif

  • Ditiru oleh Angkatan Perang Amerika

    ==> PENERAPAN ke MANAJEMEN BISNIS


Riset operasional
RISET OPERASIONAL

  • Masalah : alokasi optimal sumberdaya yang terbatas, dalamusahamencapaihasilterbaik.

  • Optimal berarti : memaksimalkanlaba, ataumeminimalkanbiaya.


Definisi
DEFINISI

  • Riset Operasional merupakan suatu pendekatan ilmiah dalam pengambilan keputusan yang digunakan untuk mencari model terbaik dalam menjalankan suatu perusahaan guna mencapai tujuan, dalam kondisi ketersediaan sumber daya yang terbatas



Home runs in management science continued
Home Runs in Management Science berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.continued...

  • Sears, Roebuck & Company

    • One of the largest merchandise & service retailers in the world

    • Maintains 13,500 service and delivery vehicles, making approximately 20 million service and delivery calls annually

    • Combined OR techniques with GIS for more efficient service and delivery routes

    • Benefits:

      • Over $9 million in one time savings

      • Over $42 million in annual savings

OREM, Spring 2014. Dr. Gigi Yuen-Reed


Home runs in management science continued1
Home Runs in Management Science berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.continued...

  • Grantham, May, Van Otterloo and Co.

    • Boston-based investment firm with over $26 billion in assets

    • Developed a model to design portfolios that achieve investment objectives while minimizing custodial and transaction fees

    • Benefits:

      • 40-60% reduction in the average number of stocks held

      • Number of trades reduced by 75-80%

      • Reduced annual trading costs by $4 million

OREM, Spring 2014. Dr. Gigi Yuen-Reed


Business use of management science
Business Use of Management Science berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

  • Some application areas:

    • Project planning

    • Capital budgeting

    • Inventory analysis

    • Production planning

    • Scheduling

  • Interfaces - Applications journal published by Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences

OREM, Spring 2014. Dr. Gigi Yuen-Reed


The Management Science Process berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Figure 1.1

The Management Science Process

OREM, Spring 2014. Dr. Gigi Yuen-Reed


Apakah itu model
Apakah berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.itu Model ?

  • Model adalahbentuksederhanadarisuatumasalah.

  • Biasanyaditulisdalampersamaanmatematika model matematika

  • Disebutsebagaiformulasi model


Example of a mathematical model
Example of a Mathematical Model berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Profit = Revenue - Expenses

or

Profit = f(Revenue, Expenses)

or

Y = f(X1, X2)


A generic mathematical model
A Generic Mathematical Model berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Y = f(X1, X2,…,Xn)

Where:

Y = dependent variable (a bottom line performance measure)

Xi = independent variables (inputs having an impact on Y)

f(.) = function defining the relationship between the Xi and Y


Model Building Illustration: berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Break-Even Analysis

Example:Western Clothing Company

Fixed Costs: cf = $10000

Variable Costs: cv = $8 per pair

Price : p = $23 per pair

The Break-Even Point is:

FC + VC = p. v

10.000 + (8.v) = 23 v

10.000 = 15 v

v = (10,000)/(15)

= 666.7 pairs


Model Building Illustration: berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Break-Even Analysis

Graphical Solution

Figure 1.2


Model Building Illustration: berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Break-Even Analysis

What if unit price increase from $23 to $30?

Figure 1.3


Things to consider
Things to Consider berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

Above and Beyond

OREM, Spring 2014. Dr. Gigi Yuen-Reed

  • Break-even is good, but how do we optimize profit?

    • How many pairs of jeans can we realistically sell given market condition?

    • Do we have sufficient resources to produce the desired quantity of products?

    • What is the impact of price elasticity?


Formulasi model program linear
Formulasi model: PROGRAM LINEAR berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

  • Merupakan fungsi Linear

  • Mempunyai target memaksimumkan atau meminimumkan suatu nilai

  • Teknik Penyelesaian yang digunakan:

    - dua variabel : metoda grafik

    lebih dari dua variabel : metoda Simpleks

  • Model LP Secara Umum :

    - Variabel

    - Fungsi Tujuan

    - Fungsi Pembatas


Tahapan dalam program linear
TAHAPAN berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.DALAMPROGRAM LINEAR

1.Merumuskanmasalah

2. Membuat model matematika

Komponen :

- variabelkeputusan

- fungsitujuan

- fungsipembatas

3. Menentukansuatupenyelesaian, agar diperoleh optimal solution

4. Pengujian model dansolusi

5. PembuatanImplementasi


Linearitas
Linearitas berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

  • Suatumesinmemerlukanwaktu 10 menituntukmemprosesproduk A dan 20 menituntukmemprosesproduk B.

    Jam operasimesin : ………………

  • Biayaangkut per unit produkdaripabrikkedaerahpemasaranA,Bdan C adalahRp 2,- , Rp 4,- danRp 6,-.

    Biayaangkut total : ……………


General form of a linear programming lp problem
General Form of a berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.Linear Programming (LP) Problem

MAX (or MIN): c1X1 + c2X2 + … + cnXn

Subject to: a11X1 + a12X2 + … + a1nXn <= b1

:

ak1X1 + ak2X2 + … + aknXn >=bk

:

am1X1 + am2X2 + … + amnXn = bm


An example lp problem

Aqua-Spa Hydro- berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.Lux

Pumps 1 1

Labor 9 hours 6 hours

Tubing 12 feet 16 feet

Unit Profit $350 $300

An Example LP Problem

Blue Ridge Hot Tubs produces two types of hot tubs: Aqua-Spas & Hydro-Luxes.

There are 200 pumps, 1566 hours of labor, and 2880 feet of tubing available.


5 steps in formulating lp models
5 Steps In Formulating LP Models: berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

1. Understand the problem.

2. Identify the decision variables.

X1=number of Aqua-Spas to produce

X2=number of Hydro-Luxes to produce

3. State the objective function as a linear combination of the decision variables.

MAX: 350X1 + 300X2


5 steps in formulating lp models continued
5 Steps In Formulating LP Models berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.(continued)

4. State the constraints as linear combinations of the decision variables.

1X1 + 1X2 <= 200 } pumps

9X1 + 6X2 <= 1566 } labor

12X1 + 16X2 <= 2880 } tubing

5. Identify any upper or lower bounds on the decision variables.

X1 >= 0

X2 >= 0


Summary of the lp model for blue ridge hot tubs
Summary of the LP Model for Blue Ridge Hot Tubs berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

MAX: 350X1 + 300X2

S.T.: 1X1 + 1X2 <= 200

9X1 + 6X2 <= 1566

12X1 + 16X2 <= 2880

X1 >= 0

X2 >= 0


Feasible infeasible solutions
Feasible/Infeasible Solutions berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

  • A feasible solution does not violate any of the constraints:

  • An infeasible solution violates at least one of the constraints:


Summary
Summary berupa persamaan atau ketidaksamaan.

  • LP

  • LP Components

  • Steps to formulate an LP


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