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KINGDOM ANIMALIA. Fun stuff!!. ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA. Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminths Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata. 3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS. Ectoderm – outer layer cover Mesoderm – Muscle & organ layer Endoderm – Digestive tract.

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Kingdom animalia

KINGDOM ANIMALIA

Fun stuff!!


Animalia 9 main phyla
ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA

  • Porifera

  • Cnidaria

  • Platyhelminths

  • Nematoda

  • Annelida

  • Mollusca

  • Arthropoda

  • Echinodermata

  • Chordata


3 germ or cell layers
3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS

  • Ectoderm – outer layer cover

  • Mesoderm – Muscle & organ layer

  • Endoderm – Digestive tract



Phylum porifera
PHYLUM PORIFERA

  • Sponges

  • Simple creatures

  • Marine & fresh water

  • No true tissues, so no organs

  • No specialized cellular function

  • Most are Hermaphroditic - perform female & male functions

  • Can reproduce sexually or asexually

  • Sessile – do not move

  • Suspension feeders

  • If you cut a sponge, it will spontaneously reaggregate back into a sponges



Porifera physiology
PORIFERA PHYSIOLOGY

  • Water flows into the sponge through Porocytes, entering a cavity called Spongocoel

  • The spongocoel is lined with feeding cells called choanocytes

    • Choanocytes beat their flagella to create a current that draws water into the porocytes

  • Ameobocytes – transfer nutrients to other cells of the sponge’s body


Cnidaria
CNIDARIA

  • Eumetazoans

  • Jellyfish & Corals

  • Radial Symmetry

  • Lack Mesoderm

  • 2 Body arrangements:

    • Polyp – Asexual, cylinder-shaped, & Attached

    • Medusa – Sexual, flat, and Roams for food

  • Use tentacles to capture & eat prey



Questions
QUESTIONS

  • Are Cnidarians protosomes or deuterosomes?

  • How do sponges feed?

  • What are Choanocytes & what is their function?


Platyhelminths
PLATYHELMINTHS

  • Flatworms

  • Acoelomates

  • Protosomes

  • Bilaterally symmetrical

  • Some Cephalization – Formation of head structure

  • 3 Important forms

    • Flukes – Parasitic & alternate between asex & sex reprod.

    • Planarians – Free-living carnivores in fresh water

    • Tapeworms – Parasitic flatworms that tend to live in vertebrates, like humans!!


Rotifera
ROTIFERA

  • Pseudocoelomates

  • Bilateral Symmetry

  • Separate mouth & anus

  • Microscopic

  • True digestive canal


Nematoda
NEMATODA

  • Roundworms

  • Protosomes

  • Pseudocoelomates

  • Bilaterally Symmetric

  • Some cause Trichinosis

    • GI illness due to tainted pork


Mollusca
MOLLUSCA

  • Snails, slugs, octopus, & squid

  • Protosomes

  • Coelomates – full digestive systems

  • Soft body with calcium-containing shell

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Bivalves – Clams and Oysters

    • Have hinged shells that are divided into 2 parts


Annelida
ANNELIDA

  • Segmented Worm

  • Earthworms & Leaches

  • Protosome, Bilaterally Symmetrical, Coelomates

  • Digestive tract is tube-within-a-tube

  • Hermaphroditic

  • Blood with hemoglobin

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Gas diffusion across skin

  • Nephridia used for excretion – precursor to kidneys



Arthropoda
ARTHROPODA

  • Protosome Coelomate

  • Jointed Appendages

  • Segmented: head, thorax, & abdomen

  • Chitinous exoskeleton

  • May have a larval stage

  • Open circulatory system

  • Malphigian tubules – removes nitrogenous waste

  • Trachea – air ducts, bring air in from the environment

  • Some have book lungs or gills


Echinodermata
ECHINODERMATA

  • Sea stars

  • Deuterosome coelomates

  • Sessile or slow moving

  • Bilateral symmetry as embryo, but reverts to primitive form of symmetry (radial) as an adult

  • Water Vascular system

  • Sexual Reproduction – External fertilization

  • Asexual Reproduction – fragmentation & regeneration

  • Calcium based endoskeleton




Chordata
CHORDATA

  • Deuterosome coelomates

  • Invertebrates & Vertebrates

    • Vertebrates – possessing backbone

  • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord – forms the nervous system & becomes the Brain & spinal cord

  • Notochord – Long support rod that is replaced by bone in vertebrates

  • Pharyngeal Gill slits – functions in breathing or feeding

  • Tail – Lost in many animals by birth


Chordates
CHORDATES

  • Can be homeothermic (homo – same) or poikilothermic

    • Homeothermic – maintains consistent body temperature

      • Birds & Mammals

    • Poikilothermic – Cold blooded, attain heat from external environment

      • Iguanas and cold environment




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