Assessing the nutritional health of populations
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Assessing the Nutritional Health of Populations. Some Definitions. Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee, 1986 Expert Panel on Nutrition Monitoring, 1989. Dietary Status. The condition of a population’s or an individual’s intake of foods and food components, especially nutrients.

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Assessing the nutritional health of populations

Assessing the Nutritional Health of Populations

Some definitions

Some Definitions

Joint Nutrition Monitoring Evaluation Committee, 1986

Expert Panel on Nutrition Monitoring, 1989

Dietary status

Dietary Status

  • The condition of a population’s or an individual’s intake of foods and food components, especially nutrients.

Nutrition assessment

Nutrition Assessment

  • Measurement of indicators of dietary status and nutrition related health status to identify the possible occurrence, nature, and extent of impaired nutritional status.

Nutrition monitoring

Nutrition Monitoring

  • Assessment of dietary or nutrition status at intermittent times with the aim of detecting changes in the dietary or nutritional status of a population

Nutrition surveillance

Nutrition Surveillance

  • Continuous assessment of nutritional status for the purpose of detecting changes in trend or distribution in order to initiate corrective measures

Nutrition monitoring in the united states

Nutrition Monitoring in the United States

Brief chronology

Brief Chronology

Goals of nnms

Goals of NNMS

  • Provide foundations for improvement of nutritional status and quality and healthfulness of food supply

  • Collect, analyze, and disseminate timely data on nutrition and dietary status, quality of food supply, food consumption patterns, consumer knowledge and attitudes

Nnms goals cont

NNMS Goals, cont...

ID high risk groups and geographic areas and trends

Establish national baseline data and develop standards for monitoring

Provide data for evaluating implications of changes in agricultural policy

Nutrition and related health measurements

Nutrition and Related Health Measurements

  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (I-V, and continuous)

  • National Health Interview Survey

  • National Hospital Discharge Survey

  • Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

Food and nutrient composition

Food and Nutrient Composition

  • Nationwide Food Consumption Survey

  • Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals – now integrated into What We Eat in America

Knowledge attitudes and behavior

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior

  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

  • Youth Risk Behavior Survey

  • Diet and Health Knowledge Survey

Food composition and nutrient data bases

Food Composition and Nutrient Data Bases

  • National Nutrient Data Bank (NNDB)

Food supply determinations

Food Supply Determinations

  • US Food and Nutrition Supply Series

Federal assessment of policies and practices

Federal Assessment of Policies and Practices

Major surveys with nutrition content

Major Surveys with Nutrition Content

Behavioral risk factor surveillance system brfss

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  • CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)

  • Annually since 1984 (not all states at first)

  • Telephone interview

  • Data collection is conducted separately by each State. Sample design uses State-level, random-digit-dialed probability samples of the adult (aged 18 years and over) population.

  • State-specific sample sizes ranged from 1,499 to 6,005

Brfss questions

BRFSS - Questions

  • Behavioral risk factors (for example, alcohol and tobacco use), preventive health measures, HIV/AIDS, health status, limitation of activity, and health care access and utilization

  • Core of questions asked in all States

  • Standardized optional questions on selected topics administered at the State’s discretion

  • Rotating core of questions asked every other year in all States

  • State-added questions developed to address State-specific needs

Brfss data

BRFSS - Data

  • National

  • State

  • Smaller units when local agencies pay for additional surveys

  • Data system homepage:

Brfss nutrition

BRFSS - Nutrition

  • Self reported height and weight

  • Trying to loose weight?

  • 6 fruit and vegetable intake questions

  • Activity

  • Food security

Assessing the nutritional health of populations

The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

National, State, and Local Data

Purposes of the yrbss

Purposes of the YRBSS

  • Focus the nation on behaviors among youth causing the most important health problems

  • Assess how risk behaviors change over time

  • Provide comparable data

Behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality

Behaviors That Contribute to the Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality

  • Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence

  • Tobacco use

  • Alcohol and other drug use

  • Sexual behaviors

  • Unhealthy dietary behaviors

  • Inadequate physical activity

Policy and program applications

Policy and Program Applications

  • Describe risk behaviors

  • Create awareness

  • Set program goals

  • Develop programs and policies

  • Support health-related legislation

  • Seek funding

Characteristics of the national state and local school based yrbs

Characteristics of the National, State, and Local School-Based YRBS

  • 9th – 12th grade students

  • Probability samples of schools and students

  • Anonymous

  • Self-administered, computer-scannable questionnaire or answer sheet

  • Completed in one class period (45 minutes)

  • Conducted biennially usually during the spring

Rising rates of childhood overweight in lewis county

Rising Rates of Childhood Overweight in Lewis County

National health and nutrition examination survey nhanes

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

  • CDC, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)

  • In-person interview in household and mobile examination center

  • stratified multistage probability sample, nationally representative of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population

  • Approximately 5,000 people are examined at 15 locations each year

  • All ages beginning in 1999

Nhanes continuous

NHANES - Continuous

  • Periodic (1960–94);

  • annual beginning in 1999

  • after 1999 annual sample size too small to provide reliable estimates for many measures and for most subgroups. Most analyses require 3 years of data for reliable estimates.

Assessing the nutritional health of populations

Nhanes sample content

NHANES – Sample Content

  • Chronic disease prevalence and conditions (including undiagnosed conditions: anemia

    • diabetes

    • cardiovascular disease

    • osteoporosis

    • obesity

  • full body DXA for body fat as well as bone density

  • physical fitness

  • Nutrition:

    • Food Security

    • Dietary supplements

    • Weight history

    • 24 hour dietary recall

Nhanes iii anthropometric procedures video

Body weight

Standing height

Sitting height

Upper leg length

Recumbent length

Upper arm length

Knee height

Arm circumference

Waist circumference

Buttocks circumference

Thigh circumference

Head circumference

Skinfolds (including thighs, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac)

Wrist breadth

Elbow breadth

NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures Video

What we eat in america nhanes cfsii integration


  • Staged integration of the two surveys

  • 2001 a year of testing, 2002 full integration

  • Goals: continuous data collection, linkage of diet and health data, 2 days of dietary data collection (second day by phone 3 to 10 days after initial exam)

  • DHKS not part of integrated efforts at this time, but under consideration

What we eat in america

What We Eat in America

  • Food intake data can be linked to health status data from other NHANES components

  • HHS is responsible for the sample design and data and USDA is responsible for the survey’s dietary data collection methodology, maintenance of the database used to code and process the data, and data review and processing

History of the food security measurement project

History of the Food Security Measurement Project

Sample of other population surveillance systems

Sample of Other Population Surveillance Systems

  • Breastfeeding: National Immunization Survey

  • Growth in Low Income Children: Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

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