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Chuck Tilley MS, ANP-BC, ACHPN, CWOCN. Skin Failure, Avoidable vs. Unavoidable Pressure Ulcers and Treatment Strategies: Are We Using Evidence-Based Practice?. Objectives.

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objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss the concept of skin failure in the chronically ill and in terminally ill hospice patients and the development of Kennedy Terminal Ulcers
  • Describe various position statements regarding avoidable vs. unavoidable pressure ulcers
  • Discuss the use of some traditional pressure ulcer prevention and treatment strategies: are they evidence-based?
  • Review a typical hospice patient’s course of treatment and identify best practices used and/or missed opportunities to utilize evidence-based strategies
skin failure fact or fiction
Skin Failure: Fact or Fiction?
  • First used in the literature by La Puma 1991
  • “An event in which the skin and underlying tissue die due to hypoperfusion that occurs concurrent with severe dysfunction or failure of other organ systems”.

(Langemo & Brown,2005)

skin failure fact or fiction1
Skin Failure: Fact or Fiction?

Pathophysiology:

  • “As a body shunts blood and nutrients to vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, it shunts blood away from the periphery or the skin”
  • “Damaged tissue loses its tolerance to pressure and trauma and cannot assimilate nutrients causing more tissue damage and, ultimately, necrosis”

(Goode & Allman, 1989)

chronic skin failure
Chronic Skin Failure
  • “Skin and underlying tissue die d/t hypoperfusion concurrent with an ongoing, chronic disease state”
  • Elderly, DM, HF, CKD, MS, ALS, Paraplegics, Quadriplegics, AIDS
  • Combination of age-related declines and chronic co-morbidities accelerate loss in

functioning

(Langemo & Brown, 2005)

end stage skin failure
End-Stage Skin Failure
  • “Skin and underlying tissue die d/t hypoperfusion concurrent with end of life”

(Brown, 2003)

  • “62.5% of pressure ulcers in hospice patients occurred in the 2 weeks before death”

(Brown, 2003)

  • Occurrence of skin failure, like any other organ system failure, should be used to establish goals of care and future treatment

(Langemo & Brown, 2005)

kennedy terminal ulcers
Kennedy Terminal Ulcers

Characteristics:

  • Pear, butterfly or horseshoe shaped
  • Usually develops on the sacrum
  • Color may be red, yellow, purple or black
  • Skin is almost always intact and looks at times almost like a black blood blister
  • Borders of the ulcer are usually irregular
  • Sudden onset. Starts out larger than other pressure ulcers, usually more superficial initially, and develops rapidly in size and depth
  • Treatment for a Kennedy Terminal Ulcer is the same as if would be for any other pressure ulcer
  • Tends to be a geriatric phenomenon. Reported frequently in hospice patients
  • Patients have a history of dying within 8-24 hours of development

(Schank, 2009)

adult ftt patient admission
Adult FTT Patient: Admission

Case: 82yo female with a history of NIDDM, HTN, CKD Stage III,

HLD, Vascular Dementia and weight loss of 20lbs over 5

months admitted to a hospice residence with a L Trochanteric

Stage III pressure ulcer s/p 1 week stay at a local hospital for a

fall at home with surgical pinning of R hip

Advance Directives: DNR/DNI/DNH, HCA: husband, HCP states

she doesn’t want artificial nutrition/hydration:

no tube feeds, IV fluids/TPN

Functional: A & Ox1, bedbound, total care for all ADLs, incontinent

of B & B, eats 25-50% of most meals (NAS, NCS diet),

frequently spits out meds, egg crate mattress, uses adult

diapers and soap and water to manage incontinence

adult ftt patient admission1
Adult FTT Patient: Admission

Pain: Moans and calls out with facial grimacing when

turned- especially onto R hip: turns self onto left

side where she appears comfortable

PE: Dry flaky skin, poor turgor, oral mucosa slightly

moist, cachectic, temporal wasting, observed

intermittently coughing after meals, incontinent

of urine Q2H, stools at

least twice daily

VS: 132/86 98-88-20

FS range: 244-288

BMI: 18. 1

Braden Score: 9

Labs: Albumin 2.0

adult ftt patient admission2
Adult FTT Patient: Admission

Orders:

Advance Directive: DNR/DNI/DNH

Diet: NCS, NAS Pureed consistency

Aspiration precautions, Nutrition consult

Activity: Bedrest, T & P Q2H

VS: Routine Weights: Weekly

Wound Care: Hydrocolloid L Hip Q72H

Meds: MVI 1 po daily, Zinc 220mg po daily, Vitamin

C 500mg po BID, Lisinopril 10mg po daily,

Metphormin 500mg po BID, Metoprolol 25mg

po BID, Tylenol 650mg po/PR Q6H PRN

Therapy: Swallow evaluation for diet recommendations

adult ftt patient day 21
Adult FTT Patient: Day 21
  • Course: Developed Aspiration PNA with deterioration in VS (profound hypotension) and neurological function. Developed a sacral Kennedy Terminal Ulcer which was found on Day 19. L Trochanteric wound deteriorated to a Stage IV pressure ulcer with periwound Incontinence Associated Dermatitis (IAD). Day 21 patient expired.
  • BMI: 17
  • Functional: Despite being changed every two hours she is frequently found wet (incontinence care with adult diapers and soap and water), despite T & P she continued to migrate to L Trochanter for comfort, egg crate mattress,
adult ftt patient day 211
Adult FTT Patient: Day 21

Orders (Day 19):

Wound Care: Hydrocolloid Q72H to both

wounds

Meds: Vitamin C 500mg po BID, MVI 1 po

daily, Zinc 225mg po daily, Augmentin

875mg po BID x10D, Roxanol 5mg

po/sl Q2H PRN pain/tachypnea/dyspnea

Diet: NPO except meds

Incontinence Care: Attends, soap and water

Oxygen: O2 2L NC humidified

wocn guideline recommendations
WOCN Guideline Recommendations
  • WOCN developed a Guideline For Prevention and Management of Pressure Ulcers first published in 2003 then updated in 2010
  • Examined the evidence surrounding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment with recommendations based on an extensive literature review with over 300 articles reviewed
wocn guideline recommendations1
WOCN Guideline Recommendations
  • Level A: Two or more supporting RCTs of at least 10 humans with pressure ulcers, a meta-analysis of RTCs, or a Cochrane Systematic Review of RCTs
  • Level B: One or more supporting controlled trials of at least 10 humans with pressure ulcers or two or miore supporting non-randomized trials of at least 10 humans with pressure ulcers
  • Level C: Two supporting case series of at least 10 humans with pressure ulcers or expert opinion
evaluating the plan of care evidence based
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Risk Identification:

  • Use of a valid and reliable risk assessment tool is recommended (Level of Evidence = B)
  • Risk assessment should be performed upon entry to a health care setting, and repeated on a regularly scheduled basis, or when there is a significant change in the individual’s condition. (Level of Evidence = C) (WOCN, 2010)
  • The Braden, the Norton and Waterlow PU risk assessment scales have been found valid for the prediction of PU risk in a variety of health care settings and in multiple countries
  • Hospice is identified as an appropriate unit to administer the Braden Scale (Bolton, 2007)
evaluating the plan of care evidence based1
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Nutrition: Routine Vitamin C & Zinc supplementation

  • Vitamin C: “The use of Vitamin C and Vitamin A

supplementation remains unproven”.

(Gray & Whitney, 2003; Gray, 2003)

  • Zinc: “There is no evidence to conclude that routine

administration of supplemental zinc will promote

healing of pressure ulcers. In fact, doses of zinc greater

than 40mg per day may effect copper levels with

possible anemia”

(NPUAP/EPUAP, 2009)

evaluating the plan of care evidence based2
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Turning and positioning: Q2H

  • Repositioning and turn; regularly and frequently (Level of Evidence C)

(WOCN, 2010)

  • The frequency of repositioning is unknown and lacks scientific evidence

(Moore & Cowman, 2009; Pieper, 2007)

evaluating the plan of care evidence based3
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Dressing Selection: Hydrocolloids

  • Studied more than any other dressing
  • Recommended Stage II and IIIs with

minimal depth

(NPUAP/EPUAP, 2009)

  • May be undermined by urine or stool

and can aggravate wounds/IAD etc.

evaluating the plan of care evidence based4
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Support Surfaces: Egg Crate Mattress

  • Pressure redistributing surfaces are recommended for individuals with full thickness or ulcers that involve multiple turning surfaces

(Nix, 2007)

  • For patients with a large stage III or IV pressure ulcers or ulcers on multiple turning surfaces; a low-air-loss or air-fluidized surface may be indicated. (Level of Evidence B)

(WOCN, 2010)

evaluating the plan of care evidence based5
Evaluating the Plan of Care: Evidence-based?

Incontinence Care: Soap and Water/ Adult Diapers

  • Use of soap is discouraged as it is more alkaline and causes skin irritation
  • Consider using briefs when out of bed and underpads when in bed to minimize moisture and heat trapping
  • pH-balanced perineal skin cleanser and barrier ointments are recommended for incontinence care
  • Indwelling Foley: Indicated for stage III-IV pressure ulcers

(WOCN, 2011)

what do you think
What Do You Think?
  • Did we:
      • Evaluate risk factors?
      • Follow established standards of practice?
      • Consider patient’s goals of care?
      • Monitor, evaluate and revise interventions?
  • Was the deterioration of the L Trochanteric pressure ulcer avoidable or unavoidable?
  • Was the Kennedy Terminal Ulcer avoidable or unavoidable?
references
References

Bolton, L. (2007). Which pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are valid for use in the clinical setting? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 34(4 ). 368-381.

Brown, G. (2003). Long-term outcomes of full thickness pressure ulcers: healing and mortality. Ostomy Wound Management, 49, 42-50.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2004). Guidance to surveyors for long term care facilities (CMS Manual Pub. 100-07 state Operations). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from http://www.cms.hhs.gov/transmittals/Downloads/R4SOM.pdf

references1
References

Goode, P. S. & Allman, R. M. (2003). The prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Medical Clinics of North America, 1989, 1511-24

Gray, M (2003). Does oral zinc supplementation promote healing of chronic wounds? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 31(4): 157-60.

Gray, M., & Whitney, J.D. (2003). Does vitamin C supplementation promote pressure ulcer healing? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 30: 245-249.

references2
References

La Puma, L. (1991). The ethics of pressure ulcers. Decubitus, 4, 43-4.

Langemo, D., & Brown, G. (2006). Skin fails too: Acute, chronic, and end-stage skin failure. Advances In Skin & Wound Care, 19, 206-211.

Kennedy, L. Kennedy Terminal Ulcer (2004, August 14). Retrieved November, 11 2012 from http://kennedyterminalulcer.com/index.html

references3
References

Krasner, D. (1995). The chronic wound pain experience: A conceptual model. Ostomy Wound Management, 41, 20-29.

Moore, Z., & Cowman, S. (2009). Repositioning for treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Data base of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD006898

Mortimer, P.S. (1998). Management of skin problems: Medical aspects. In D. Hanks & N. MacDonald (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine (2nd ed., pp. 617-27). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

references4
References

National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP/EPUAP). (2009). Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: Clinical practice guideline. Washington, D.C.: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel

Nix, D. (2007). Support Surfaces (2007). In R. Bryant and D. Nix (Eds.), Acute and Chronic Wounds: Current Management Concepts, 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Pieper, B. (2007). Mechanical forces: Pressure, shear and friction. In R. Bryant and D. Nix (Eds.), Acute and Chronic Wounds: Current Management Concepts, 3rd ed. pp. 205-235.St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

references5
References

Schank, J. (2009). Kennedy Terminal Ulcer: The “Ah-Ha!” moment and diagnosis.Ostomy Wound Management, 15;55(9): 40-4.

Sibbald, G., Krasner, D., Lutz, J. (2011). Tip the SCALE toward quality end-of-life skin care. Nursing Management, 42(3): 24-32.

Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. (2007). The WOCN image library [Image database]. Retrieved from http://images.wocn.org

references6
References

Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. (2009). Position paper: Avoidable versus unavoidable pressure ulcers. Glenview, IL: Author

Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. (2010). Guideline For Prevention and Management of Pressure Ulcers. Glenview, IL: Author

Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. (2011). Incontinence Associated Dermatitis (IAD): Best Practice for Clinicians. Mount Laurel, NJ: Author

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