Immigration II: Global Healthcare. A few facts from 2011. Largest groups by source country amongst Canadian permanent residents: Philippine, Chinese, Indian. Another fact (2011).
Largest groups by source country amongst Canadian permanent residents: Philippine, Chinese, Indian.
Of 44000 permanent residents from Africa and the Middle East, 34000 had 10 years of schooling or more, 18000 had a university degree.
Similarly for immigrants from Asia and the Pacific and from South and Central America.
20-25% of physicians in the U.S. and Canada are immigrants.
40% of nurses in the U.S. are foreign-trained.
Doctors per 1000 population (2011):
Whom or what do immigrants in the healthcare sector leave behind in their home countries?
Physicians per 1000 of population (2004):
South Africa: 0.77
37% of health workers work in the American continent (mainly US and Canada).
1.3% of health workers work in sub-Saharan Africa where 14% of the world’s population lives and the health burden is extreme.
Flows of healthcare workers
Welfare of the health workers (why do they leave their home countries?):
- About 3% of the world’s population live outside their country of origin.
- Remittances to less developed countries ≈
- Highest recipient countries: India, China, Philippines, Mexico, Nigeria.
- Tajikistan receives remittances equal to nearly 50% of its GDP.
(World Bank statistics, 2012)
What about those trained in healthcare who are not permitted to practice their profession in rich countries?
34% of skilled immigrants to Canada were unemployed in the mid-2000s.
Do utilitarian considerations dictate that health workers should not be allowed to emigrate?
Do health workers have a right to emigrate?
Positive and negative duties (again)
Are we, as individuals, morally responsible for the poverty, disease and deaths of others?
What should we and/or governments of rich countries do to help? Example of UK.
What can the governments of donor countries do to help? Examples of Hungary and Lithuania.