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Lecture 22 41. New Technology in Manufacturing. MAE364 Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005. Instructor: T. Kesavadas (Prof. Kesh) Associate Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 1006 Furnas Hall. http://wings.buffalo.edu/courses/sp04/mae/364/

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Lecture 22

41. New Technology in Manufacturing


Mae364 manufacturing processes spring 2005

MAE364Manufacturing ProcessesSpring 2005

Instructor: T. Kesavadas (Prof. Kesh)

Associate Professor,

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

1006 Furnas Hall.

http://wings.buffalo.edu/courses/sp04/mae/364/

Teaching Assistants (more details later):

Govindarajan Srimathveeravalli Sridhar Seshadri



Manu Factus : Latin for ‘made by hand’

Definition:

A Well organized method of converting raw material to end product

End Product: Value and utility added to output.



History of manufacturing
History of Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing started during 5000 – 4000 BC Wood work,ceramics,stone and metal work

  • Steel Production 600-800 AD

  • Industrial Revolution 1750 AD: Machine tools run by invention of steam engine

  • Mass Production and Interchangeable Parts

  • Computer Controlled Machines 1965

  • CNC,FMS systems



Historical development of materials the industrial revolution
Historical development of materials - The Industrial Revolution




Requirements of a good manufacturing system
Requirements of a good manufacturing system

  • Product should meet design requirement

  • Economical Process

  • Quality should be built into the system

  • Should be flexible and responsive to new technology

  • High productivity: Best utilization of man, material, machine, capital and available resources.


Steps in modern manufacturing
Steps in Modern Manufacturing

Definition of product need, marketing information

Design analysis;codes/standards review; physical and analytical models

CAM and CAPP

Production

Conceptual design and

evaluation Feasibility study

Prototype production

testing and evaluation

Inspection and quality

assurance

CAD

Production drawings; Instruction manuals

Packaging; marketing and

sales literature

Material Specification; process

and equipment selection; safety review

Product

Pilot Production


Manufacturing of a paper clip
Manufacturing of a Paper Clip

  • What is the function

  • How long does it last

  • How critical is the part

  • Material Metallic - what type

    Non metallic – plastic

  • Dimension Diameter of clip

    Shape of clip

  • Method of manufacturing Manual

    Automated

  • Function based design Stress, Strain

    Life of clip

    Stiffness

  • Style Appearance,Color,Finish

    Plating,painting


Manufacturing of a bicycle

AISI 1010 welded tubing, assembly resistance welded and electrostatically painted

Aluminum alloy forging, polished and buffed

Forged aluminum tubing(alloy similar to 6063), polished and buffed

Manufacturing of a bicycle

AISI 1010,swaged and cadmium plated

AISI 1008,press formed resistance welded and painted

AISI 1020,forging and chromium plated

AISI 1010, luster finished coil stock,profile milled,resistance welded and chromium plated formed,welded and plated

AISI 1008, press formed,welded and plated

Cold drawn medium carbon steel,( similar to AISI 1035) bright zinc plated

AISI 1020 tubing, machine threaded and painted

AISI 1010,stamped and coined and chromium plated

Seamless AISI 1020 tubing swaged tube sections brazed into fork crown,painted

AISI 1010, stamped and chromium plated

Headed brass,nickel plated

AISI 1040 forging,carburized and chromium plated

Aluminum permanent mold casting,machined , polished and buffed

Case hardened forging quality steel parts, black oxide coating

Hardened high-carbon steel,thread rolled and chromium plated

AISI 1010,stamped and chromium plated


Assignment 1
Assignment 1 electrostatically painted

  • Select a simple product of your choice

    • Try to analyze the different materials, processes, etc

    • Use library resources

    • We will discuss this in the class on Friday


Selection of process topic to be covered
Selection of Process: Topic to be covered electrostatically painted

Casting

  • Sand/Expandable Mold,Permanent Mold

    Forming and Shaping

  • Rolling,forging,extrusion,powder metallurgy

    Machining

  • Turning,Boring,Drilling,Milling,Planing,Broaching,Grinding


Selection of process
Selection of Process electrostatically painted

Unconventional Method

  • EDM,ECM,Ultrasound,High Energy Beam,machining

    Joining

  • Welding,Brazing,Soldering

    Finishing

  • Honing,Lapping,Polishing,Burnishing,Deburring


Objectives of this course and what is expected of you
Objectives of this course and what is expected of you electrostatically painted

  • Manufacturing processes and fundamentals

  • Selection of appropriate process to meet design requirements

  • Effect of process parameters and variables on the quality of parts produced

  • Effect of material properties on a given process

  • Decision and methods for different product size and mix

  • Effect of design on manufacturability

  • Overview of computer aided methods in traditional manufacturing processes


Two methods of forming a dish shaped part from sheet metal electrostatically painted

Left: conventional hydraulic/mechanical press using male and female dies

Right: explosive forming using only one die.

pressure

Upper die

Explosive

water

work piece

Lower Die


Three methods of casting turbine blades electrostatically painted

A: conventional casting with ceramic mold

B: directional solidification

C: Method to produce single crystal blade


Selection of process depends on
Selection of Process depends on electrostatically painted

  • Dimensional and surface finish requirements

  • Operational Cost

  • Design and strength requirements

  • Consequences of various methods


Design for assembly
Design for Assembly electrostatically painted

  • Design of the product to permit assembly

  • Possibility of multipurpose parts

  • Capability of manufacturing process to consistently produce parts which can be assembled without problem

  • Method or process of assembly

    Automated Systems,Manual Systems etc


Design for assembly1
Design for Assembly electrostatically painted


Automation and impact of computers
Automation and Impact of Computers electrostatically painted

Machine Control Systems

Computer Numerical Control machines, Robots,Machines,Processes

Computer Integrated Technology

  • Responsive to market change

  • Better use of process,man,machining management etc

  • CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing

  • FMS: Flexible Manufacturing System

  • GT: Group Technology

  • VR: Virtual Reality


Applied manufacturing gcse

Enterprise elements to enhance understanding electrostatically painted

Applied Manufacturing GCSE

UNIT 3

Applications of Technology


Applied manufacturing gcse unit 3
Applied Manufacturing GCSE electrostatically paintedUnit 3

Aim of the Unit:-

To investigate the impact of modern

technology on the design and

manufacture of a range of products


Applied manufacturing gcse unit 31
Applied Manufacturing GCSE electrostatically paintedUnit 3

  • Modern technology, includes…..

  • Production implications

  • Cost implications

  • Human resource implications

  • Socio-economic implications

  • Demographic implications


Applied manufacturing gcse unit 32
Applied Manufacturing GCSE electrostatically paintedUnit 3

  • New technology has helped to develop design and manufacturing processes

  • New technology has improved the quality of products and services offered to customers

You will learn how:-


Applied manufacturing gcse unit 33
Applied Manufacturing GCSE electrostatically paintedUnit 3

  • Information and communications technology

  • New components and a range of modern materials including smart materials

  • Control technology

You will investigate:-


The use of i c t includes
The use of I.C.T.includes electrostatically painted

  • Sourcing and handling information and data, such as databases, spreadsheets and internet sites

  • CAD (computer-aided design) techniques

  • CAM (computer-aided manufacture)

  • Communications technology

  • Control technology


Use of modern and smart materials and components including
Use of Modern and Smart Materials and Components including:- electrostatically painted

  • Polymers, inc plastics, adhesives and coatings

  • Metals and composites

  • Biological, chemical and food products, modified ingredients and methods of preparation and production

  • Computer technology, inc microprocessors

  • Micro-electronic components

  • Textile technology, inc liquid crystal, coated fabrics and thermochromic dyes


The use of systems and control technology
The use of systems and control technology:- electrostatically painted

  • To organise, monitor and control production including:-

  • Process/quality control and automation, inc PLCs

  • Robotics, including continuous operation, increased speed, etc

  • ICT as applied to integrated manufacturing/engineering systems, etc


The impact of modern technology
The impact of modern technology. electrostatically painted

  • Range, types and availability of products

  • Design and development of products

  • Materials, components and ingredients

  • Safety and efficiency of modern methods of production

  • Improved characteristics of products, e.g. size, weight/density, ease of use, disposability and reclaimability

  • Markets for the products


Advantages and disadvantages of modern technology
Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Technology electrostatically painted

  • Changes in the type and size of workforce (social implications)

  • Changes in the working environment

  • Impact on the global environment and sustainability


Investigating products
Investigating Products electrostatically painted

  • Your teacher has gathered together a number of examples of the same product (*as appropriate to the course)

  • These products have either been produced at different times, for different purposes, within a price band, for use in different environments, etc

  • Examine each and record as much information you can derive and then compare with the accompanying checklist (* these should be obtained/produced locally wherever possible)


Considerations
Considerations electrostatically painted

  • The role modern technology plays in the design and manufacture of the product

  • The technology or process it replaced

  • The benefits of using the technology

  • The implications of using the technology, for the product and the manufacturer


Visit to modern manufacturing base
Visit to modern manufacturing base electrostatically painted

  • You will be visiting Company “ABC”

  • This company operates primarily using modern technology

  • You will need to refer to the worksheet. “Visit to a modern manufacturing facility” to decide what questions you need to ask on the visit

  • Discuss with your teacher and other class members


How does the product work
How does the product work? electrostatically painted

In terms of its:-

  • Purpose

  • Structure and form

  • Materials and components

  • Technology used


Further considerations
Further considerations electrostatically painted

  • Should manufacturers continue to develop and adopt new technologies?

  • Should manufacturers continue to improve their products?

  • Should they consider the workforce and the social implications of advancement brought about by technological advancement?

  • How much should they consider global implications of this advancement?


Ncp info day 13 may 2011 brussels

NCP Info Day electrostatically painted13 May 2011, Brussels

Factories of the Future

& Next ICT CallsDr Erastos FilosFoF ICT Coordinator

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Factories of the future fof context
Factories of the Future (FoF): electrostatically paintedContext

What:

Part of the Recovery Plan

To help manufacturing, in particular SMEs, across a broad range of sectors be competitive after the Crisis is over

How:

Industry-driven R&D projects

4 annual co-ordinated calls until 2013 between the two relevant FP7 Themes, ICT and NMP

Who:

R&D stakeholders of European Technology Platforms ARTEMIS, ENIAC, EPOSS, EUROP, NESSI, PHOTONICS21, MANUFUTURE

Technology providers & industrial users (large & SME), academic researchers

Total FP7 budget (2010-2013):

245 M€ (ICT) + 400 M€ (NMP)

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


State of the industry expected impact
State of the Industry & Expected Impact electrostatically painted

Europe’s manufacturing

More than 25 sectors, 21 % of GDP (= € 6.5 trillion), 30+ million jobs

Crisis has reduced Europe’s production capacity

Export champions (but at risk) in machinery, automobiles, wind turbines, …

Largest global market share in automation & factory equipment

Under threat from low wage economies (eg mass-produced goods)

Chance to compete through high added-value products (eg quality, services, customisation, clean & energy efficient processes)

FoF ICT: Technology leaders to gain market share

Automation/industrial robotics & laser technology solutions for factory environments

Product/production design tools (eg software for modelling, simulation, visualisation)

Software for enterprise/supply-chain management

FoF ICT: European industrial end users to

Integrate latest technology into their production environments

Build on new competencies (knowledge, organisation, skills, business models)

Use technologies that enable energy-efficient and “waste-less” production

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Recovery plan objectives industrial competitiveness
Recovery Plan Objectives: electrostatically paintedIndustrial Competitiveness

Supply side

  • Technology/manufacturing equipment suppliers to gain market share:

  • Automation/industrial robotics & laser technology solutions for factory environments

  • Product/production design tools (eg software for modelling, simulation, visualisation)

  • Enterprise/supply-chain management tools

ICT

Demand side

  • European industrial end users:

  • To integrate latest technology into their production environments

  • To develop new competencies (knowledge, organisation, skills, business models)

  • To use technologies that enable energy-efficient and “waste-less” production

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Smart Factories: electrostatically painted

Goal: More automation, better control & optimisation of factory processes

Means:Software, lasers & intelligent devices embedded in machines & factory infrastructure

Sensors,

Tags

data

Product

PLM server

info

advice

data

info

Inforequest

PLM agent

(reader)

Factories of the FutureICT Vision

Factory productivity

  • Less waste

  • Less energy use

  • Faster time-to-market

  • Better quality

Virtual Factories:

  • Goal:To manage supply chains; to create value by integrating products & services

  • Means:Software to holistically interconnect & manage distributed factory assets; new business models & value propositions

Supply-chain productivity

  • High-value products

  • Keep jobs in Europe

  • Process transparency

  • IPR security

  • Lower CO2 footprint

Digital Factories:

  • Goal:To “see” the product before it is produced

  • Means:Software for the digital representation &test of products & processes prior to their manufacture & use

Design productivity

  • Reduce design errors

  • Better & efficient products

  • Less waste + rework

  • Faster time-to-market

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


2009 fof ict call on smart factories successful proposals
2009 FoF ICT Call on “Smart Factories”: electrostatically paintedSuccessful Proposals

RoboFoot

TAPAS

FoFdation

QCOALA

PlantCockpit

KAP

Manufacture ofsustainable products

(a): Process automation& optimisation

Economic efficiency/productivity

(b): ICT & sensors for energy efficiency

(c): Robotics-enabled

production

ActionPlant

CustomPacker

(d): Laser applications

Energyefficiency

A.K 09

FoF-ICT-WP2011-12_ICT2010_29Sep10


2010 FoF ICT Call - Virtual Factories electrostatically paintedWork Programme coverage


2010 fof ict call digital factories work programme coverage
2010 FoF ICT Call - Digital Factories electrostatically paintedWork Programme coverage


Results of first fof ict nmp calls
Results of first FoF electrostatically paintedICT+NMP Calls

  • July 2009 July 2010

  • Success rate: 26% 19%

  • (25 funded (36 funded of 98) of 193)

  • Share by Org. Type:

  • - Higher Education: 23% 24%

  • - Private for Profit: 54% 50%

  • - Research Org.: 22% 24%

  • Share of funding of SMEs: 31% 29%

  • Countries of funded partners: 25 26

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Factories of the future 2011 call expected impact c onclusions

  • 2010 Call electrostatically painted

  • 35 M€

  • 8 projects

Smart Factories

ICT

VirtualFactories

DigitalFactories

  • 2011 Call

  • 35 M€

  • 8 projects

  • 2011 Call

  • 45 M€

  • 10 projects

Factories of the Future 2011 CallExpected impact & conclusions

“Digital Factories”

  • Reinforced European leadership in knowledge-driven platforms & tools for product development & manufacturing

  • Scaling and higher accuracy of digital design tools & simulation techniques

  • Accelerated product design & manufacturing, with a considerably shorter time-to-production & time-to-market

“Virtual Factories”

  • Higher management efficiency of networked & sustainable business operations.

  • ICT tools enabling the participation of SMEs in virtual factory environments.

  • New business models & innovation scenarios for a low-carbon economy.

  • FoF is:

  • Attractive to industry

  • SME-friendly

  • Of shorter term scope


Factories of the future multi annual roadmap 2010 2013
Factories of the Future electrostatically paintedMulti-Annual Roadmap 2010-2013

Sub-Domains:

Sustainable Manufacturing

ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing

High-performance manufacturing

Exploiting new materials through manufacturing

http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_technologies/pdf/ppp-factories-of-the-future- strategic-multiannual-roadmap-info-day_en.pdf

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Factories of the future beyond 2013
Factories of the Future electrostatically paintedBeyond 2013?

2009

2010

2011

2012 2013 Policies

FP8 proposalend ’11

FP8 launchearly ’13

MAFFJun ’11

2009

2012 FP7 Calls

2010

2011

VirtualFactories

(45 M€)

DigitalFactories

(35 M€)

FoF Call

70 M€

9 July – 2 Dec 2010

Total ICT245 M€

SmartFactories

July ’09 –Nov. ‘09

SmartFactories

Obj. 7.1(40 M€)

Manuf. solutionsfor new ICTproducts

Obj. 7.2(20 M€)

Jul – Dec 2011

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


The double role of ict

for Manufacturing electrostatically painted

ICT

Manufacturing of

The double role of ICT

Smart FactoriesObj. 7.1

Virtual FactoriesObj. 7.3

Towards Future ICT Factories …

Digital FactoriesObj. 7.4

“ManufacturingSolutions fornew ICT“

Obj. 7.2

Factories of theFuture

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Objective 7 1 smart factories energy aware agile manufacturing customisation
Objective 7.1: Smart Factories electrostatically paintedEnergy-aware, agile manufacturing & customisation

EU:Global leader in automation, industrial robotics & laser systems

Key industry players:ABB, Siemens, Festo, Schneider Electric, Acciona, Bosch, KUKA, COMAU, Trumpf, …

EU position:Increasingly threatened by Japan, USA, Korea, China

Lack of standardisation

Maintain & extend Europe’s 30% market share: «Factories» as products

Strong, export-oriented sector needs to maintain competitiveness

Tackle resource use efficiency of manufacturing (especially reduce 25% share of energy consumption)

Open new markets for innovative ICT devices & automation systems

Where do we stand?

What do we want to achieve & why?

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Objective 7 1 smart factories energy aware agile manufacturing customisation1
Objective 7.1: Smart Factories electrostatically paintedEnergy-aware, agile manufacturing & customisation

Target outcomes

  • Demonstration, benchmarking of process automation & control

    • For discrete, continuous or batch industries

    • Key features: flexibility, autonomy, robustness, energy transparency

    • Demonstration in real industrial environments

  • Large-scale validation of advanced industrial robotics systems

    • User-friendly interaction with & tasking of intelligent cooperative robotic systems

    • Large-scale applicability to flexible, small batch & craft manufacturing

  • Applications based on factory-wide networks of intelligent sensors, new metrology tools & methods

    • Real-time management of manufacturing information (incl. planning, scheduling, dispatching)

  • Lasers & laser systems for manufacturing & materials processing

    • High-brilliance diode lasers/laser arrays

    • New wavelengths & online adaptation of beam properties

Call FoF/2011 40 M€ IPs/STREPs

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Objective 7 2 manufacturing solutions for new ict products

Primarily roll-to roll wet deposition, but also other processes, e.g.

Evaporation, hot-embossing, laser processing,other low-temperature processes

Tackle main roadblocks, e.g.

Patterning processes, resolution, registration accuracy, process stability, multilayer lamination, encapsulation, automation, in-line quality control, architectures to cut production costs

Standardisation issues as appropriate

Industry-driven, strong quality control, testing &validation elements

Objective 7.2Manufacturing solutions for new ICT products

Target outcomes

Feasibilitydemonstrators

Call FoF/2011 20 M€ IPs

NCPs-InfoDay_13May11


Thank you
Thank you processes, e.g.

Thank you

FoF on the web:

  • http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_technologies/lists/factories-of-the-future_en.html

    PPP Information Event in Brussels, 9 July 2010

    FoF Contacts:

  • 7.1 Objective: [email protected]

  • 7.2 Objective: [email protected]


C processes, e.g. HASE AQUILANO JACOBS

Operations Management

For Competitive Advantage

Chapter 4

Process Analysis

ninth edition


Chapter 4 process analysis
Chapter 4 processes, e.g. Process Analysis

  • Process Analysis

  • Process Flowcharting

  • Types of Processes

  • Process Performance Metrics


Process analysis terms
Process Analysis Terms processes, e.g.

  • Process: Is any part of an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs.

  • Cycle Time: Is the average successive time between completions of successive units.

  • Utilization: Is the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use.


Process flowcharting defined
Process Flowcharting processes, e.g. Defined

  • Process flowchartingis the use of a diagram to present the major elements of a process. The basic elements can include tasks or operations, flows of materials or customers, decision points, and storage areas or queues.

  • It is an ideal methodology by which to begin analyzing a process.


Flowchart symbols
Flowchart Symbols processes, e.g.

Tasks or operations

Examples: Giving an admission ticket to a customer, installing a engine in a car, etc.

Examples: How much change should be given to a customer, which wrench should be used, etc.

Decision Points


Flowchart symbols continued
Flowchart Symbols (Continued) processes, e.g.

Storage areas or queues

Examples: Sheds, lines of people waiting for a service, etc.

Examples: Customers moving to the a seat, mechanic getting a tool, etc.

Flows of materials or customers


Example flowchart of student going to school
Example: Flowchart of Student Going to School processes, e.g.

Yes

Go to school today?

Drive to school

Walk to class

No

Goof off


Multistage process
Multistage Process processes, e.g.

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3


Multistage process with buffer
Multistage Process with Buffer processes, e.g.

Buffer

Stage 1

Stage 2


Other types of processes
Other Types of Processes processes, e.g.

  • Make-to-order

    • Only activated in response to an actual order.

    • Both work-in-process and finished goods inventory kept to a minimum.

  • Make-to-stock

    • Process activated to meet expected or forecast demand.

    • Customer orders are served from target stocking level.


Process performance metrics
Process Performance Metrics processes, e.g.

  • Operation time = Setup time

    Run time

  • Throughput time = Average time for a unit to move through the system

  • Velocity = Throughput time

    Value-added time


Process performance metrics continued
Process Performance Metrics (Continued) processes, e.g.

  • Cycle time = Average time between completion of units

  • Throughput rate = 1 .

    Cycle time

  • Efficiency = Actual output

    Standard Output


Process performance metrics continued1
Process Performance Metrics (Continued) processes, e.g.

  • Productivity = Output

    Input

  • Utilization = Time Activated

    Time Available


Cycle time example
Cycle Time Example processes, e.g.

  • Suppose you had to produce 600 units in 80 hours to meet the demand requirements of a product. What is the cycle time to meet this demand requirement?

  • Answer: There are 4,800 minutes (60 minutes/hour x 80 hours) in 80 hours. So the average time between completions would have to be: Cycle time = 4,800/600 units = 8 minutes.


Process throughput time reduction
Process Throughput Time Reduction processes, e.g.

  • Perform activities in parallel.

  • Change the sequence of activities.

  • Reduce interruptions.


Materials

Materials processes, e.g.


Properties of materials
Properties of Materials processes, e.g.

Mechanical Properties: strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, elasticity, fatigue, creep.

Behavior Under Loading: tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear.

Physical Properties: density, specific heat, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, melting point, electrical and magnetic properties.

Chemical Properties: oxidation, corrosion, degradation, toxicity, flammability.


Types of materials
Types of Materials processes, e.g.

Ferrous Metals: iron and steel.

Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, titanium, superalloys, beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys, precious metals.

Plastics: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers.

Ceramics: glass, graphite, diamond.

Composite materials: reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites, honeycomb structures.


Ferrous metals applications
Ferrous Metals: Applications processes, e.g.

  • Structural: building structures, concrete reinforcement

  • Automotive: chassis, engine parts, drive train, body parts

  • Marine: ship hulls, structure, engines

  • Defense: tanks, weapons

  • Consumer Products: appliances, recreational vehicles, toys, utensils and tools


Nonferrous metals applications
Nonferrous Metals: Applications processes, e.g.

  • Architectural: aluminum windows and doors

  • Automotive: aluminum engine blocks, copper wiring, mag wheels

  • Marine: brass/bronze fittings, bearings, propellers

  • Defense: brass shell casings

  • Consumer Products: electrical wiring, utensils, jewelry, electronics


Plastics polymers
Plastics (Polymers) processes, e.g.

  • Compared to metals, plastics have lower density, strength, elastic modulus, and thermal and electrical conductivity, and a higher coefficient of thermal expansion

  • The design of plastic parts should include considerations of their low strength and stiffness, and high thermal expansion and low resistance to temperature.


Plastics applications
Plastics: Applications processes, e.g.

  • Architectural: electrical and thermal insulation, weather seals, carpets, wall coverings, paint

  • Aerospace: electrical and thermal insulation, instrument panels,upholstery, seals

  • Automotive: body panels, instrument panels, upholstery, electrical and thermal insulation, seals, hoses, tires

  • Consumer Products: toys, sporting goods, appliances, tools, utensils, clothing, shoes, packaging


Manufacturing

Manufacturing processes, e.g.

“The Process of Converting Raw Materials Into Products”


Manufacturing a product general considerations
Manufacturing a Product: General Considerations processes, e.g.

  • Material Selection

  • Processing Methods

  • Final Shape and Appearance

  • Dimensional and Surface Finish

  • Economics of Tooling

  • Design Requirements

  • Safety and Environmental Concerns


Choosing methods of production
Choosing Methods of Production processes, e.g.

Use a Selection Chart


Manufacturing processes for metals
Manufacturing Processes for Metals processes, e.g.

  • Casting: expendable mold and permanent mold.

  • Forming and Shaping: rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet forming, powder metallurgy, molding

  • Machining: turning, boring, drilling, milling, planing, shaping, broaching, grinding, ultrasonic machining, chemical machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM), electrochemical machining, high-energy beam machining

  • Joining: welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding, adhesive bonding, mechanical joining

  • Finishing: honing, lapping, polishing, burnishing, deburring, surface treating, coating, plating


Casting processes
Casting Processes processes, e.g.

Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity; upon solidification, metal conforms to the shape of the cavity.

Die Casting

Sand Casting


Forming and shaping processes
Forming and Shaping Processes processes, e.g.

Bulk deformation processes that induce shape changes by plastic deformation under forces applied by tools and dies.

Forging

Extrusion


Machining processes
Machining Processes processes, e.g.

Material removal from a work piece: cutting, grinding, nontraditional machining processes.

Milling

Lathe Machine



NC Punch Press Machine processes, e.g.


Manufacturing processes for plastics
Manufacturing Processes processes, e.g. for Plastics

  • Plastics are shipped to manufacturing plants as pellets or powders and are melted just before the shaping process. Polymers melt at relatively low temperatures and are easy to handle.

  • Plastics can be molded and formed, as well as machined and joined, into many shapes with relative ease.



Selective Laser Sintering System processes, e.g.

Courtesy of the University of Texas


Chapter 7

Chapter 7 processes, e.g.

Process Management


Wisdom from texas instruments
Wisdom from Texas Instruments processes, e.g.

“Unless you change the process, why would you expect the results to change”


Scope of process management
Scope of Process Management processes, e.g.

  • Process Management: planning and administering the activities – design, control, and improvement – necessary to achieve a high level of performance

  • Four types of key processes

    • Design processes

    • Production/delivery processes

    • Support processes

    • Supplier processes


AT&T Process processes, e.g.

Management Principles

  • Focus on end-to-end process

  • Mindset of prevention and continuous improvement

  • Everyone manages a process at some level and is a customer and a supplier

  • Customer needs drive the process

  • Corrective action focuses on root cause

  • Process simplification reduces errors


Control vs improvement

Out-of-control processes, e.g.

Controlled

process

Improvement

New zone

of control

Time

Control vs. Improvement


Leading practices 1 of 2
Leading Practices processes, e.g. (1 of 2)

  • Translate customer requirements and internal capabilities into product and service design requirements early in the process

  • Ensure that quality is built into products and services and use appropriate tools during development

  • Manage product development process to enhance communication, reduce time, and ensure quality

  • Define, document, and manage important production/delivery and support processes


Leading practices 2 of 2
Leading Practices processes, e.g. (2 of 2)

  • Define performance requirements for suppliers and ensure that they are met

  • Control the quality and operational performance of key processes and use systematic methods to identify variations, determine root causes, and make corrections

  • Continuously improve processes to achieve better quality, cycle time, and overall operational performance

  • Innovate to achieve breakthrough performance using benchmarking and reengineering


Product development paradigms

Traditional Approach processes, e.g.

Design the product

Make the product

Sell the product

Deming’s Approach

Design the product

Make it with appropriate tests

Put it on the market

Conduct consumer research

Redesign with improvements

Product Development Paradigms


Product development process
Product Development Process processes, e.g.

Idea

generation

Concept

development

Product &

process design

Full-scale

production

Product

introduction

Market

evaluation


Quality engineering
Quality Engineering processes, e.g.

  • System Design

    • Functional performance

  • Parameter Design

    • Nominal dimensions

  • Tolerance Design

    • Tolerances


Loss functions

loss processes, e.g.

no loss

loss

nominal

tolerance

loss

loss

Loss Functions

Traditional

View

Taguchi’s

View


Taguchi Loss Function Calculations processes, e.g.

L(x) = k(x - T)2

Example: Specification = .500  .020

Failure outside of the tolerance range costs $50

to repair. Thus, 50 = k(.020)2. Solving for k

yields k = 125,000. The loss function is:

L(x) = 125,000(x - .500)2

Expected loss = k(2 + D2) where D is the deviation

from the target.


Design objectives
Design Objectives processes, e.g.

  • Cost, Manufacturability, Quality, Public Concerns

  • Tools and Approaches

    • Design for Manufacturability

    • Design for Environment


Streamlining product development
Streamlining Product Development processes, e.g.

  • Competitive need for rapid product development

  • Concurrent engineering - a process in which all major functions involved with bringing a product to market are continuously involved with the product development from conception through sales

  • Design reviews


House of quality

Interrelationships processes, e.g.

Customer

requirement

priorities

Technical requirements

Voice of

the

customer

Relationship

matrix

Technical requirement

priorities

Competitive

evaluation

House of Quality


Quality function deployment

technical processes, e.g.

requirements

component

characteristics

process

operations

quality plan

Quality Function Deployment


Motorola s approach to process design
Motorola’s Approach processes, e.g. to Process Design

  • Identify the product or service

  • Identify the customer

  • Identify the supplier

  • Identify the process

  • Mistake-proof the process

  • Develop measurements and control, and improvement goals.


Evaluating a process
Evaluating a Process processes, e.g.

  • Are steps arranged in logical sequence?

  • Do all steps add value? Can some be eliminated or added? Can some be combined? Should some be reordered?

  • Are capacities in balance?

  • What skills, equipment, and tools are required at each step?

  • At which points might errors occur and how can they be corrected?

  • At which points should quality be measured?

  • What procedures should employees follow where customer interaction occurs?


Projects
Projects processes, e.g.

  • Project initiation – direction, priorities, limitations, and constraints

  • Project plan – blueprint and resources needed

  • Execution – produce deliverables

  • Close out – evaluate customer satisfaction and provide learning for future projects


Basic components of services
Basic Components of Services processes, e.g.

  • Physical facilities, processes, and procedures

  • Employee behavior

  • Employee professional

    judgment


Key service dimensions

Customer contact and interaction processes, e.g.

Labor intensity

Customization

Key Service Dimensions


Control
Control processes, e.g.

  • The continuing process of evaluating process performance and taking corrective action when necessary

  • Components of control systems

    • Standard or goal

    • Means of measuring accomplishment

    • Comparison of results with the standard as a basis for corrective action

A well-controlled system is predictable


After action review
After Action Review processes, e.g.

  • What was supposed to happen?

  • What actually happened?

  • Why was there a difference?

  • What can we learn?


Supplier and partnering processes
Supplier and Partnering Processes processes, e.g.

  • Recognize the strategic importance of suppliers

  • Develop win-win relationships through partnerships

  • Establish trust through openness and honesty


Supplier certification systems
Supplier Certification Systems processes, e.g.

  • “Certified supplier” – one that, after extensive investigation, is found to supply material of such quality that routine testing on each lot received is unnecessary


Benefits of effective supplier process management
Benefits of Effective Supplier Process Management processes, e.g.

  • Reduced costs

  • Faster time to market

  • Increased access to technology

  • Reduced supplier risk

  • Improved quality


Process improvement
Process Improvement processes, e.g.

Traditional Industrial Engineering

  • Productivity improvement

  • Work simplification

  • Planned methods change

  • Kaizen

  • Stretch goals

  • Benchmarking

  • Reengineering

New approaches from the total quality movement


Kaizen
Kaizen processes, e.g.

  • Gradual and orderly continuous improvement

  • Minimal financial investment

  • Involvement of all employees

  • Exploit the knowledge and experience of workers


Agility
Agility processes, e.g.

  • Flexibility – the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to changing requirements

  • Cycle time – the time it takes to accomplish one cycle of a process

  • Benefits

    • Improve customer response

    • Force process streamlining and simplification


Breakthrough improvement
Breakthrough Improvement processes, e.g.

  • Discontinuous change resulting from innovative and creative thinking

  • Benchmarking – the search of industry best practices that lead to superior performance

    • Competitive benchmarking

    • Process benchmarking

    • Strategic benchmarking

  • Reengineering – radical redesign of processes


Process management in the baldrige award criteria
Process Management processes, e.g. in the Baldrige Award Criteria

The Process ManagementCategory examines the key aspects of an organization’s process management, including customer-focused design, product and service delivery, key business, and support processes. This Category encompasses all key processes and all work units.

6.1 Product and Service Processes

a. Design Processes

b. Production/Delivery Processes

6.2 Business Processes

6.3 Support Processes


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