Reaching efa tools for analyzing school placement and teacher supply in underserved areas l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas. EQUIP2: USAID Seminar June 15, 2004. Introduction. Objective Present analytical tools that can be used to influence the policy context for meeting EFA goals in specific countries Outline

Download Presentation

Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Reaching efa tools for analyzing school placement and teacher supply in underserved areas l.jpg

Reaching EFA:Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas

EQUIP2: USAID Seminar

June 15, 2004


Introduction l.jpg

Introduction

  • Objective

    • Present analytical tools that can be used to influence the policy context for meeting EFA goals in specific countries

  • Outline

    • Context for and Challenge of EFA

    • Creating a Policy and Institutional Environment for Getting to EFA

    • Two Tools that Contribute to Creating the Policy Environment

  • What Tools Are We Focusing On

    • Analysis of Access and Implications for School Organization

    • Analysis of Teacher Supply and Implications for Teacher Recruitment, Training, and Support


Context for and challenge of efa l.jpg

Context for and Challenge of EFA

  • 85 countries, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, risk not meeting the EFA goal.

  • Discourse about reaching EFA has touched on:

    • Finance– Completion

    • Access– Accountability

    • Efficiency– Management

    • Quality– Relevance

    • Equity– School Location and Organization

    • Learning– Teacher Supply and Support

  • Discourse has tended to focus on national policy (one size fits all)

  • Discourse and policy need to recognize the sub-national realities of “underserved areas”


Slide4 l.jpg

Ghana Northern Region - Rural

Girls primary school attendance

35.0

30.0

25.0

20.0

Female literacy rate

Boy primary school attendance

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0

Women w/ healthcare

% Piped water

Access to mass media

CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERSERVED AREAS

Underserved Areas: Those regions that rank in the lowest one third on an index of key social development indicators


Policy and institutional environment l.jpg

Policy and Institutional Environment

  • Are there known interventions that can be effective in these underserved areas?

    Yes

  • Are they implementable in the current institutional and policy environment?

  • Have tended to be implemented as outside interventions (through NGOs, etc)

  • What would be policy implications for bringing them more into the main stream?

  • Tools are designed to explore two aspects of doing that:

    School Location and Organization

    Teacher Supply & Support


Reaching efa school location and organization l.jpg

Reaching EFA: School Location and Organization

  • One key to reaching the EFA goals is identifying how the organization and placement of schools impacts access in underserved areas

  • Presented here is a tool for identifying and analyzing access to schooling in underserved areas developed by Bob Prouty and Doug Lehman for the World Bank (referred to as the Rural Access Initiative)


Current policy school organization l.jpg

Current Policy: School Organization

  • In many countries, schools in rural zones are defined as:

  • Either 6 or 3 classrooms

  • One teacher per classroom

  • Full primary cycle (e.g. of 6 years)

  • At least 120 school age children available for enrollment

  • (three classes of 40)


Access two basic questions l.jpg

Most effective coverage

Least effective coverage

School and catchment area

Villages not served

Access: Two Basic Questions

How much does it matter where the school is?

Is there a school?

What proportion of the population lives outside of areas served by the education system?

How effective is the coverage provided by official school catchment areas?


Slide9 l.jpg

Is there a school: Central Guinea?

Schools

Villages

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


Slide10 l.jpg

Is there a school:

Western Chad?

Western Sahelian Chad:

Total number of villages: 4,079

Villages with school: 337

Villages within 3km of a school: 925

Villages further than 3km to a school: 2,817

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


Slide11 l.jpg

How much does it matter where the school is?

GER and Distance,

Chad, Western Sahelian Region, 2002 - 2003

Most effective coverage

Least effective coverage

GER

60%

50%

40%

Boys

30%

Girls

20%

10%

N = 179

0%

School in Village

Up to

1KM

1 to

2KM

2 to

3KM

Distance from Village to School

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


Slide12 l.jpg

Do students have access to a

full cycle of primary education?

Example: Mondo Sub-Prefecture, Chad

Full Cycle Schools Only

All schools

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


Slide13 l.jpg

Total school-age population in this area:168children

26

38

56

25

23

Using the existing rates of enrollment based on distance, how many children would go to school?

1

3 km

2 km

Total Enrollment of 38

GER of 22%

1 km

38

Villages

2

School-Age Population

29

6

Scenario A:

Central school with standard catchment

0

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


Slide14 l.jpg

Total school-age population in this area:168children

Using the existing rates of enrollment based on distance, how many children would go to school?

26

14

3 km

2 km

Total Enrollment of 88

GER of 52%

1 km

Villages

20

38

School-Age Population

56

29

25

13

Scenario B:

Village-based alternative schools

23

12

Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative


What would be required for village based schools l.jpg

What would be required for village-based schools?

Schools would need to be organized differently:

  • Smaller

  • Multi-grade

  • More flexible operation

  • Teachers willing and able to work and live in small villages

  • Pedagogy adapted to the small, multi-grade setting

  • Capacity for local decision-making


Reaching efa teacher supply and support l.jpg

Reaching EFA: Teacher Supply and Support

  • Another central constraint to providing education in underserved areas is the provision and support of capable, motivated and effective teachers.

  • Strategies for expanding basic education need to be based on an analysis of teacher supply and demand in underserved areas. This presentation illustrates one approach to that analysis.


Slide17 l.jpg

Prevailing Policies Effecting Teacher Supply

  • Standard education sector policy and strategy calls for a teacher pupil ratio of 40:1, and 100% trained teachers

  • The term ‘trained teacher’ is typically meant one who has had both secondary level education and pre-service teacher training

  • Teachers are centrally recruited, trained and deployed

  • Trained teachers can be assigned and will serve anywhere in the country


The standard teacher supply chain l.jpg

The Standard Teacher Supply Chain

To higher education & workforce

Completed

Secondary &

Teacher Training

4 years secondary

2 years teacher training

Secondary School

Entry to Secondary School

To primary school

teaching force

Primary Enrolments


Slide19 l.jpg

The Case of Northern Ghana

Settlements tend to be small, sparsely populated and widely scattered.

Teachers face problems of adequate accommodation, unsafe drinking water, lack of electricity, poor health conditions, limited transport to neighboring towns to collect salaries, visit family, shop, etc, lack of personal development opportunities, and unfamiliarity with the customs and the language of the locality.

(Action Aid REV program survey report, 2000).


Slide20 l.jpg

'000s

400

Girls out of School

25.0

300

20.0

Boys out of School

21.1

15.0

200

14.1

10.0

Girls in School

5.0

100

0

Boys in School

0

1990

2000

Northern Ghana – 1990 to 2000

Qualified

Teachers

Per 1,000

Students

GER 1990

Boys 67% Girls 35%

Total 51%

GER 2000

Boys 59% Girls 40%

Total 50%


Slide21 l.jpg

Teachers for Underserved Areas

Northern Region - Ed Profile - 15-44 yrs

Source of recruitment for primary teachers

450

Female

Male

Thousands

300

150

0

Completed

Secondary Ed

Women 2,956

Men 13,466

0 - 6 yrs

7 to 11 yrs

12 +

Schooling Completed


Teachers for underserved areas l.jpg

Policy Options

Increase the pupil/teacher ratio – currently 35:1

Increase the percentage of secondary leavers entering teaching - currently est. at 17%

Change the population pool from which teachers are drawn

Issues

Constraint is the small size of rural schools

This would require increasing salaries, and benefits, e.g. housing

Can teachers with less than secondary education provide quality classroom instruction? What is needed to make this work?

Teachers for Underserved Areas


Policy alternative for teacher supply l.jpg

Policy Alternative for Teacher Supply

To higher education & workforce

Completed

Secondary &

Teacher Training

4 years secondary

2 years teacher training

Secondary School

Post-primary

& in-service

training

Entry to Secondary School

To primary school

teaching force

Primary Enrolments


Slide24 l.jpg

Teachers with

Post-Primary

Teachers needed

to reach EFA

Teachers

w/Sec & TTC

Teacher Supply Options

Teacher Requirements for EFA -Northern Region

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

This demand analysis assumes a steady pupil/teacher ratio, and a continuing

rate of 17% of secondary graduates entering the primary teaching force


Slide25 l.jpg

Teachers for Underserved Areas: An Example

  • Teachers are recruited and trained locally

  • Usually they have some post-primary education, but less than state “trained teachers”

  • Paid far less than the state teachers but, often, show a high degree of motivation

  • Training and on-going support provides them with the basic teaching and learning methods.

  • They often live within the local community and are under community scrutiny

  • [from Evaluation of Schools for Life, N. Ghana, 2000]


Implications for the policy and institutional environment l.jpg

Size

Location

Operation

Governance

Management

Who can be a teacher

Recruitment and Deployment

Training

Supervision/Support

Professional Development

Implications for the Policy and Institutional Environment

School Organization

Teacher Supply


  • Login