Relevant activities in emep
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Relevant activities in EMEP. EMEP Monitoring programme Expansion to the EECCA region, HTAP QA/QC. Wenche Aas EMEP/CCC (NILU). Monitoring programme/strategy :. Level 1 Main ions in precipitation and in air heavy metals in precipitations ozone PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass meteorology

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Relevant activities in EMEP

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Relevant activities in emep

Relevant activities in EMEP

  • EMEP Monitoring programme

  • Expansion to the EECCA region, HTAP

  • QA/QC

Wenche Aas

EMEP/CCC (NILU)


Relevant activities in emep

Monitoring programme/strategy:

  • Level 1

  • Main ions in precipitation and in air

  • heavy metals in precipitations

  • ozone

  • PM10 and PM2.5 mass

  • meteorology

  • at ca 125 sites

  • Level 2, supersite (joint EMEP/GAW)

  • POPs

  • Heavy metals in air and aerosols

  • VOC

  • EC/OC, OC speciation

  • Mineral Dust

  • PM speciation incl. gas particle ratio

  • + all level 1 activities

  • 15-20 sites

Both levels are mandatory by all Parties


Challenges to implement the strategy

Challenges to implement the strategy

Level 1

  • Some Parties have difficulties to find national resources, most problems in Eastern Europe

  • Many sites lack a few parameters to get a complete measurement program of level 1

    Level 2

  • POPs and Hg monitoring receives little attention

  • VOC receives little attention (but EU directive addressing PAHs offers assistance)

  • Full chemical speciation of particles is difficult. It’s costly, and there are problems to harmonise methodology (i.e for EC/OC)


Relevant activities in emep

Intercontinental transport of Hg

Mercury deposition to Europe:

contribution of continents of NH

Total annual Hg deposition in the Northern Hemisphere

POPs and O3 are also important topics in HTAP


Relevant activities in emep

HTAP

  • Current ”integration” initiatives

  • WMO-GAW SACs and WCCs

  • EECCA region, monitoring capacity

  • Capacity building and improvement in infrastructures

  • Field data resources – meta data compilation (ACCENT)

  • Quality assurance documentation archive (ACCENT)

  • Initiatives towards “data flow harmonisation”

  • Harmonisation of monitoring strategies should be considered


New emep sites in the eecca region

New EMEP sites in the EECCA region

EECCA: East Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

Support from:

CAPACT http://www.unece.org/ie/capact

Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

KZ: Borovoye

MD: Leovo

GE: Abastumani

AR: Amberd


Capact project 2004 2007

CAPACT project (2004 –2007):

“Capacity Building for Air Quality Management and the Application of clean Coal Combustion Technologies in Central Asia”

  • Objective

  • The project will address the technological gaps and raise awareness of air quality management within the institutions in Central Asia. (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan)

  • Improved policies for air quality management (emission, monitoring, reporting etc).

  • Investments in technologies for cleaner combustion of coal.

  • Improved national energy policies.

http://www.unece.org/ie/capact/


Expectations eecca countries

Expectations, EECCA countries

  • A very important region with very little monitoring today

    • High emissions

    • Strategic area for hemispheric transport issues

    • Links EMEP and EANET

  • Expected that most countries will sign the EMEP protocol soon.

  • Need to establish EMEP level 1 sites in each country.

    • Support can be found, i.e. from foreign aid money, EU, UNECE.

  • Training and capacity building is necessary.


Relevant activities in emep

WMO

ICP


Why qa qc is vital

Why QA/QC is vital

  • Comparable measurements needed to make regional and global assessments

  • Need methods that are easy to use, cheap and long lasting for trend analysis (changing methodology may affect the trend

  • A harmonisation of methodology has been developed during the last 30 years and are still developing


Qa activities in emep

QA activities in EMEP

  • Site characterization

  • Documentation of methods and material

  • -detection limits, precision, accuracy,

  • -instructions for maintenance and calibration

  • Manual and standard operating procedures (SOPs)

  • Lab intercalibration

  • Co-located experiments (field comparison)

  • Training courses

  • Data checking and validation

    • -e.g calculate ion balance and time trends

  • Flagging data


Necessary national qa qc activities

Necessary national QA/QC activities

  • Proper siting for representative measurements

  • Use recommended field and lab methods

  • Follow QA/QC procedures in field and lab

  • Evaluate the data and flag or delete biased or erroneous data

  • Report data in proper format and meta data:

    • information of methods

    • detection limits

    • Precisions

    • siting information


Relevant activities in emep

Plotting time trends

Plotting annual dataset

Plotting ion balance


Relevant activities in emep

All EANET sites is also included

http://www.nilu.no/trajectories/


Field inter comparisons so4 in air

Field inter-comparisons, SO4 in air

Estonia

Spain


Comparison of so2 measurements filterpack vs tcm in germany

Comparison of SO2 measurements (filterpack vs. TCM) in Germany

Schauinsland

(DE03)

Zingst (DE09)


Summary of co located so 2 measurements

Summary of co-located SO2 measurements


Measurement and model intercomparison

Measurement and model intercomparison

??

ES

NO


Lab intercomparisons annually

Lab intercomparisons annually


Qa flags based on lab and field intercomp

QA flags based on lab and field intercomp.


Intercomparison between networks

Intercomparison between networks

CAPMon / EMEP -2007

  • EANET / EMEP –2006

  • Global intercomparison:

  • lab WMO GAW PC

  • Field – nothing


Field intercomparisons emep eanet

Field intercomparisons, EMEP -EANET

NO3

SO4

NH4

Na


Summary

Summary

  • Global and hemispheric issues are more and more important

  • Lack of sites and measurements in several parts of the world

  • Need for further harmonisation of methods

  • QA/QC activities across the different regional networks are necessary

    • Initiative within the EU project ACCENT for a common meeting this autumn/winter


Passive sampler and low cost denuder to be used in monitoring

Passive sampler and low cost denuder to be used in monitoring

Wenche Aas

EMEP/CCC (NILU)


Passive samplers

Passive samplers

Advantages

  • Excellent for high spatial resolution

  • Representativity studies

  • Inexpensive

  • Easy to use, and high flexibility

  • No need for electricity nor a real station /site

  • Long term exposure – E.g: cumulative uptake of ozone to forest

    Disadvantages

  • Inaccurate compared to active sampler

  • Long sampling time (episodes not detected)

  • Should be checked against active sampler


Passive samplers can be an alternative method in some cases

Passive samplers can be an alternative method in some cases

  • SO2 will be better taken from filterpack

  • NH3 and HNO3 is good supplements to filterpack to correct for gas/particle distribution –low cost denuder even bettre alternative

  • Depending on purpose of monitoring:

  • NO2 and O3 may be replace active sampler

  • But for health warnings and assessment hourly data are needed

  • POPs – good alternative for spatial assessment

From IVL, Sweden


Pop passive sampler campaign

POP passive sampler campaign

  • Objectives:

  • To gain new insight into the spatial patterns

  • consistent sampling and analytical methodologies

  • passive air samplers as a complementary measurements

  • supporting model validation

Selected POPs: PAHs PCBs, HCHs, HCB, “New” POPs (PBDEs)


Relevant activities in emep

Passive samplers for POP

  • samplers developed that provide weekly, monthly or yearly time integrated air conc.

Polyethylene

PUF


Accuracy

Accuracy

  • Passive samplers and active samplers deployed at the same site/duration

  • Within a factor of 2 for various PAHs

  • Including higher molecular weight compounds associated with particles…


Nitrogen deposition

Nitrogen deposition

  • NOx dry deposition relatively small

  • NH3 and HNO3 dry dep is important and it necessary to study the gas particle distribution between NO3 vs HNO3 and NH3 and NH3. Vd between gas an particle is very different

  • Filterpack method can be biased due to NH3NO3 evaporation from aerosol filet and/or HNO3 NH3 deposition on humid aerosol filter

  • Low cost denuder measurements is a good supplement/alternative – 1 month measurements


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