Precise digital leveling
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Precise Digital Leveling. Section 6 Vertical Datum. Vertical Datum. Local/Regional Assumed City, County International Great Lakes Datum 1955 (IGLD55) International Great Lakes Datum 1985 (IGLD85) Tidal Datums National National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)

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Precise Digital Leveling

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Precise digital leveling

Precise Digital Leveling

Section 6

Vertical Datum


Vertical datum

Vertical Datum

  • Local/Regional

    • Assumed

    • City, County

    • International Great Lakes Datum 1955 (IGLD55)

    • International Great Lakes Datum 1985 (IGLD85)

    • Tidal Datums

  • National

    • National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)

    • North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)


National geodetic vertical datum 1929 ngvd 29

National Geodetic Vertical Datum 1929(NGVD 29)

  • Defined by heights of 26 tidal stations in U.S. and Canada

  • Tide gages were connected to the network by leveling from tide gage staffs to bench marks

  • Water-level transfers used to connect leveling across Great Lakes

  • Normal Orthometric Heights:

    • H* = C / 

    • C = model (“normal”) geopotential number

    •  = from normal gravity formula

  • H* = 0 level is NOT a level surface


Precise digital leveling

First-Order Leveling Network NGVD 29


North american vertical datum 1988 navd 88

North American Vertical Datum 1988 (NAVD 88)

  • Defined by one height (Father Point/Rimouski)

  • Water-level transfers connect leveling across Great Lakes

  • Adjustment performed in Geopotential Numbers

  • Helmert Orthometric Heights:

    • H = C / (g + 0.0424 H0)

    • C = geopotential number

    • g = surface gravity measurement (mgals)

    • H0 = approximate orthometric height (km)

  • H = 0 level is nearly a level surface

  • H = 0 level is biased relative to global mean sea level


Precise digital leveling

Vertical Control Network NAVD 88


Ngvd 29 versus navd 88

NGVD 29 Versus NAVD 88

  • Datum Considerations:NGVD 29NAVD 88

  • Defining Height(s) 26 Local MSL 1 Local MSL

  • Tidal Epoch Various 1960-78

    • (18.6 years)

  • Treatment of Leveling Data:

  • Gravity Correction Ortho Correction Geopotential Nos.

  • (normal gravity) (observed gravity)

  • Other Corrections Level, Rod, Temp. Level, Rod, Astro,

  • Temp, Magnetic,

  • and Refraction

  • Adjustments Considerations:

  • Method Least-squares Least-squares

  • Technique Condition Eq. Observation Eq.

  • Units of Measure Meters Geopotential Units

  • Observation Type Links Between Height Differences

    • Junction Points Between Adjacent BMs


Ngvd 29 versus navd 88 continued

NGVD 29 Versus NAVD 88 (continued)

  • Adjustments Statistics :NGVD 29NAVD 88

  • No. of Bench Marks 100,000 (est) 450,000 (US only)

  • Km of Leveling Data 75,159 (US) 1,001,500

  • 31,565 (Canada)

  • Published Information:

  • Orthometric Height TypeNormal Helmert

  • Orthometric Height UnitsMeters Meters

  • Gravity ValueNormal “Actual”


Tidal datum

Tidal Datum

  • Heights Measured Above Local Mean Sea Level

  • National Tidal Datum epoch; 19 year series

  • Encompasses all significant tidal periods including 18.6 year period for regression of Moon’s nodes

  • Averages out nearly all meteorological, hydrological, and oceanographic variability

  • Leveling is used to determine relationship between bench marks and tidal gauges


Precise digital leveling

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/


Precise digital leveling

NAVD 88 minus

LMSL (1960-1978)

(units = cm)


Precise digital leveling

FT

Point Reyes, Drakes Bay, California


Precise digital leveling

Geodetic and Tidal

Geodetic and Tidal Datum Relationships


Precise digital leveling

Importance of Shoreline

AL, AK, CA, CT, FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NJ, NY, NC, OR, RI, SC, WA

Territorial Seas

Privately Owned

Uplands

State Owned

Tidelands

Contiguous Zone

Exclusive Economic Zone

State Submerged Lands

Federal Submerged Lands

3 n. mi.

High Seas

12 n. mi.

MHHW

200 n. mi.

MHW

MLLW

Chart Datum

Privately

Owned

State

Owned

Privately

Owned

State

Owned

TX

DE, MA, ME, NH, PA, VA


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