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Chapter 7. Non- Mendelian Genetics. 4 Types of Non - Mendelian Genetics. Incomplete Dominance Codominance Multiple Alleles Sex-linked Inheritance. Incomplete Dominance. Traits are inherited with no definite dominance of either allele. Phenotypes combine to create a separate trait.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Non-Mendelian Genetics

4 types of non mendelian genetics

4 Types of Non-Mendelian Genetics

Incomplete Dominance

Codominance

Multiple Alleles

Sex-linked Inheritance

incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance
  • Traits are inherited with no definite dominance of either allele.
  • Phenotypes combine to create a separate trait.
  • Example, red and white snapdragons offspring pink snapdragons
punnett square of incomplete dominance cross
Punnett Square of Incomplete Dominance Cross
  • Expressed as R and r alleles as a Punnett Square Cross.
  • RR (red) X rr

(white)

codominance
Codominance
  • Expression of both alleles equally
  • Phenotype of both traits are seen in heterozygous individuals
  • Example black rooster and white chicken produce offspring with black and white feathers.
punnett square of codominant cross
Punnett Square of CodominantCross
  • Expressed as two separate traits in a Punnett Square Cross
  • BB (black) X WW (white)
multiple alleles
Multiple Alleles
  • More than two alleles of a certain trait are present
  • Example ABO blood types
  • IA and IB and i alleles determine blood types in Punnett Square.
punnett square of multiple alleles cross
Punnett Square of Multiple Alleles Cross

IA i X IB i

Both parents are heterozygous for blood type

sex linked trait
Sex-linked trait
  • Gene on the X or Y chromosome
  • Males only have one copy of X, Females have two copies.
  • Females can be heterozygous for the trait.
  • Example Red-Green colorblindness
inheritance pattern for red green colorblindness
Inheritance pattern for red-green colorblindness

XX (heterozygous carrier)

XY (normal color sight)

inheritance pattern for red green colorblindness1
Inheritance pattern for red-green colorblindness

XX (heterozygous carrier)

XY (colorblind male)

what is a pedigree chart
What is a Pedigree Chart?
  • A pedigree is a chart of the genetic history of family over several generations.
  • Scientists or a genetic counselor would find out about your family history and make this chart to analyze.
notation on the pedigree
Notation on the Pedigree
  • A circle represents a female.
  • A square represents a male.
  • A completely shaded square or circle indicates the person has the trait.
  • A not shaded shape indicates that a person neither has the trait nor is a carrier.
  • A half-shaded shape indicates that a person is a carrier.
interpreting a pedigree chart
Interpreting a Pedigree Chart
  • Determine if the pedigree chart shows an autosomal or X-linked disease.
    • If most of the males in the pedigree are affected the disorder is X-linked
    • If it is a 50/50 ratio between men and women the disorder is autosomal.
example of pedigree charts
Example of Pedigree Charts
  • Is it Autosomal or X-linked?

Autosomal

interpreting a pedigree chart1
Interpreting a Pedigree Chart
  • Determine whether the disorder is dominant or recessive.
    • If the disorder is dominant, one of the parents must have the disorder.
    • If the disorder is recessive, neither parent has to have the disorder because they can be heterozygous.
example of pedigree charts1
Example of Pedigree Charts
  • Dominant or Recessive?
  • Dominant
example of pedigree charts2
Example of Pedigree Charts
  • Dominant or Recessive?
  • Recessive
summary
Summary
  • Pedigrees are family trees that explain your genetic history.
  • Pedigrees are used to find out the probability of a child having a disorder in a particular family.
  • To begin to interpret a pedigree, determine if the disease or condition is autosomal or X-linked and dominant or recessive.
slide24

karyotype

  • picture of the chromosomes in a cell used to check for abnormalities
slide25

A Human Karyotype has photos of all the matched pairs of human chromosomes from one cell, stained to show banding patterns, and arranged from long to short, with centromeres near the top.Here are our numbers 6-9…

mutations
Mutations
  • A mutation is any change in the DNA sequence.
  • Gene mutations or chromosomal mutations
  • Mutations in gametes may be passed on to offspring
  • Mutations in somatic cells cannot be passed to offspring
types of gene mutations
Types of Gene Mutations
  • Point mutation a change in a single base pair in the DNA.

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOG BIT THE CAR

types of gene mutations1
Types of Gene Mutations
  • Frameshiftmutation a single base pair is added or deleted, causing a shift in how the DNA strand will be read.

THE DOG BIT THE CAT

THE DOB ITT HEC AT

chromosome mutations
Chromosome Mutations
  • Deletion-part of a chromosome is left out.
  • Insertion-part of a chromatid breaks off & attaches to its sister chromatid.
chromosome mutations1
Chromosome Mutations
  • Inversion-part of a chromosome breaks off & reinserts backwards.
  • Translocation-part of one chromosome breaks off & is added to a different chromosome.
what causes mutations
What causes mutations?
  • spontaneous mistakes
  • environment

Mutagen - any agent that can cause a change in DNA is called a. (x-rays, UV light, asbestos)

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