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Motivation & Learning. Christopher Price, Ph.D. Director, Center for Excellence in Learning & Teaching, The College at Brockport [email protected] Motivation & Learning. Case Example Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation Increasing Student Motivation . Case Example.

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Motivation & Learning

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Motivation learning

Motivation & Learning

Christopher Price, Ph.D.

Director, Center for Excellence in Learning & Teaching, The College at Brockport

[email protected]


Motivation learning1

Motivation & Learning

  • Case Example

  • Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation

  • Increasing Student Motivation


Case example

Case Example

  • After years of avoiding it, Professor Skinner was scheduled to teach the introductory course in philosophy for non-majors. The students in this class typically are not interested in philosophy and only take the course because it is a graduation requirement. The difficulty of the material also leads to a high drop, withdraw, and failure rate. Students frequently complain about the course to the administration. The college is considering eliminating this requirement which would likely lead to a reduction in the number of faculty in the Philosophy department.


Case example questions

Case Example Questions

  • What are the motivation challenges in the case example?


Case example questions1

Case Example Questions

  • If you were Professor Skinner, which strategy would you adopt to increase student motivation:

    • Rethink the grading policy so that more students are likely to achieve the grade they desire.

    • Assess what students know about the course content at the beginning of the semester and adjust the content so that it is neither too easy or too difficult.

    • Suggest that the course be combined with the section for majors in order to improve student interest and the grade distribution.

    • Redesign the course to incorporate student interests and ideas into the course content and assignments.


Case example questions2

Case Example Questions

  • What motivation challenges do you have as a teacher that are not addressed by the case example?


Motivation learning2

Motivation & Learning

  • Case Example ✓

  • Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation

  • Increasing Student Motivation


What is motivation

What is Motivation?

  • The degree to which someone is invested in the process or outcome of an activity

    • Motivation is primarily influenced by individual goals

    • Individual goals have both internal (natural) and social (nurture) sources

    • Nature and nurture combine to affect how individuals perceive their goals


What affects the perception of learning goals

What affects the perception of learning goals?

  • Values (what matters)

  • Expectancies (what we think will happen)


What type of values affect learning goals

What type of values affect learning goals?

Sources of Intrinsic (Internal) Motivation:

  • Attainment Value

    • Task/job/activity well done

  • Inherent Value

    • The task/job/activity on its own


What type of values affect learning goals1

What type of values affect learning goals?

Source of Extrinsic (External) Motivation:

  • Instrumental Value

    • Rewards for achieving goals/punishments for failing to achieve goals


The trouble with extrinsic motivation

The Trouble with Extrinsic Motivation

  • Daniel Pink, The Surprising Science of Motivation, TED Talk, July 2009

    • http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html


The trouble with extrinsic motivation1

The Trouble with Extrinsic Motivation

  • According to Pink in Drive, rewards (and punishments)

    • Extinguish intrinsic motivation

    • Diminish performance

    • Crush creativity

    • Crowd out good behavior

    • Encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior

    • Can become addictive

    • Can foster short term thinking


The value of intrinsic motivation

The Value of Intrinsic Motivation

(Also from Drive)

  • Autonomy

    • Control over task, time, technique, team improves performance

  • Mastery

    • Pursuit of mastery most likely to lead to engagement

  • Purpose

    • Purpose goals lead to higher levels of individual satisfaction and sense of well-being


Motivation learning3

Motivation & Learning

  • Case Example ✓

  • Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation ✓

  • Increasing Student Motivation


What can instructors do to increase students motivation to learn

What can instructors do to increase students’ motivation to learn?

  • Help students value learning

    • Connect material to their interests

    • Provide authentic tasks

    • Communicate relevance of and connections between subjects

    • Give students more control over their learning


What can instructors do to increase students motivation to learn1

What can instructors do to increase students’ motivation to learn?

  • Use rewards (and punishments) very carefully and as little as possible


When to use rewards from drive

When to Use Rewards (from Drive)


What can instructors do to increase students motivation to learn2

What can instructors do to increase students’ motivation to learn?

  • Help students build positive expectancies


How do expectancies affect learning goals

How do expectancies affect learning goals?

  • Expectancies = what we think will happen

  • Outcome

    • Specific action will bring about expected/desirable outcome

  • Efficacy

    • Belief that one is capable of action that will bring about the expected outcome

    • More likely when achievements are attributed to internal and controllable causes


What can instructors do to increase students motivation to learn3

What can instructors do to increase students’ motivation to learn?

  • Help students build positive expectancies

    • Identify appropriate level of challenge

    • Create assignments that are not too easy or too difficult

    • Clearly articulate expectations (use rubrics)

    • Be fair in evaluating student work and offer targeted feedback

    • Encourage meaningful self-assessment and practical strategies for improvement


Motivation learning4

Motivation & Learning

  • Case Example ✓

  • Extrinsic versus Intrinsic Motivation ✓

  • Increasing Student Motivation ✓


Questions comments

Questions/Comments?


References

References

Ambrose, S.A., et. al. (2010) How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Pink, D. (2009) Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead Books.

Svinicki, M. (2004) Learning and motivation in the postsecondary classroom. Bolton, MA: Anker.


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