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计算机图形学绪论 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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计算机图形学绪论. 图形学的产生与发展. ● 图形学的历史 ◘ 发展简史 ◘ 图形学诞生 ◘ 显示技术 ◘ 光栅显示 ◘ 三维显示 ◘ 计算技术 ◘ 交互与应用 ◘ 图形标准 ● 图形学的应用 ● 图形学的发展. 计算机图形学影响着每一个使用计算机的人 以 视窗操作系统 (Windows) 为典型代表的 图形用户界面 (GUI) 使得每一个普通用户都可以容易地学会使用计算机。 恰如 WWW 使得计算机及其应用打破时空限制而遍及世界每一个角落。 图形学的应用标致着计算机软、硬件技术的发展水平

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计算机图形学绪论

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    • (Windows)(GUI)

      • WWW


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  • (1990's -)

  • Digital Convergence

    • ,

  • Infobahn

  • PDA

  • New forms of computing (1990's -)

    Classical time-sharing is dead

    Chips are key in graphics subsystems

    3D graphics workstations (1986- now)

    2D bitmap raster displays for PCs and workstations(1972 - now)

    Vector Displays (1963 - 1980's)

    2D3D

    3D (4D)

    Character Displays (1960's - now)

    1960

    1980

    1990

    2000

    1970


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      • 1950SAGE

      • 1963Ivan SutherlandSKETCHPAD

      • Ivan SutherlandIvan Sutherland1988


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    • Character Displays (1960's - now)

      • display: text plus alphamosaic pseudo-graphics

      • object and command specification: command line typing

      • control over appearance: coding for text formatting

      • application control: single task

    • Vector Displays (1963 - 1980's)

      • display: line drawings and stroke text

      • object and command specification:

        • command line typing, function keys, menus

      • control over appearance:

        • pseudo WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)

      • application control: single or multitasked, host-satellite distributed computing


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    • 2D bitmap raster displays (1972 - now)

      • display: windows: icons, legible text and "flat earth" graphics

      • object and command specification:

        • minimal typing via WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointing)

        • GUI (Graphical User-Interface):

          • point-and-click selection of menu items and objects, widgets and direct manipulation (e.g. drag and drop)

      • control over appearance:

        • WYSIWYG (and WYSIAYG)

      • application control:

        • multi-tasking, networked C/S computation and window management (even X terminals)


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    • 3D graphics workstations (1986- now)

      • display:

        • real-time, pseudo-realistic images of 3D scenes

      • object and command specification:

        • 2D, 3D and nD input devices for point-and-click, widgets, direct manipulation

      • control over appearance:

        • WYSIWYG (and WYSIAYG)

      • application control:

        • multi-tasking,

        • networked (client/server) computation and window management

    • Chips are key in graphics subsystems


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    • Classical time-sharing is dead

      • PCs and Workstations merging in distributed heterogenous computer networks; 1:n n:1

    • New forms of computing (1990's -)

      • multimedia: text and graphics synchronized with sound, video

      • hypermedia: multimedia with links

      • "Digital Convergence": merging of digital television and distributed computing,

        • consumer electronics: set-top computers (e.g., for Interactive TV, Video-On-Demand), "telecomputers"

      • The Information Superhighway/Infobahn

      • embedded computing (PDA's)

      • ubiquitous computing


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    • Input technology: inexpensive interaction devices from research lab into marketplace

      • makes 2D and 3D graphics no longer special

      • kids using computer graphics with Nintendo Data Glove, soon Sega VR game with HMD and input devices

      • 3D (even time-varying, "4D") illustrations as clip art/clip models

    • Application Distinctions

      • 2D - Paint pixels vs. Draw (and manipulate) "objects":

      • Model/View/Controller framework

      • 3D - object modeling vs. image synthesis (rendering)


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      • 1974(ACM SIGGRAPH)

      • 19793D CORE

      • ISOANSIGKS(Graphical Kernal System)

      • GKS-3D1988

      • ISOPHIGS (Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System)PHIGSPHIGS+

    • (ad hoc Standard)

      • SGIOpen GLDirectXXX-WindowAdobePostscript


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      • GIS


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    CAD

      • GIS


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    CT

      • GIS


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    ()

      • GIS


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    ()

      • GIS


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    (Geographic information systemGIS)

      • GIS


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      • GIS


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      • GIS


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    1993

      • GIS


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    GUI

      • GIS


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    WIMP

    W(Window)

    I(Icon)

    M(Menu)

    P(Pointing Devices)

    WindowX-Window

      • GIS


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      • GIS


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    BNURBS

    Solid modeling

    Feature Modeling

    Non-manifold Modeling


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    Sierpinski1/4


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    (fractal)

    23


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    L(L-grammars)


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    • /()


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    • Web

    • (VRML)(Cyberspace)


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