The politics of backlash from gender mainstreaming to mainstreaming equality for all
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The politics of backlash. From gender mainstreaming to mainstreaming equality for all. Maria Stratigaki, Panteion University, Greece ATHENA 3 WG3A: strengthening cooperation between academic and social organizations addressing women or gender differences.

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The politics of backlash from gender mainstreaming to mainstreaming equality for all

The politics of backlash. From gender mainstreaming to mainstreaming equality for all

Maria Stratigaki, Panteion University, Greece

ATHENA 3

WG3A: strengthening cooperation between academic and social organizations addressing women or gender differences


A constant reinforcement of eu gender equality policies till 1997

A constant reinforcement of EU gender equality policies (till 1997)

  • The Treaty or Rome (article 119)

  • The action programs (1st,2nd, 3rd)

  • The Directives (equal treatment in the labour market)

  • Increase number of Women Commissioners in (1995)

  • More women MEPS (1994)

  • The Beijing Conference (1995)

  • The Treaty of Amsterdam (Article 2, 141) 1997


Analysis of eu documents

Analysis of EU Documents

EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND

  • Regulation 2084/1993, 1994-1999

  • Regulation 1784/1999, 2000-2006

  • Regulation 1081/2006, 2007-2013

    ACTION PROGRAMMES

  • 4th Action Programme on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men 1996-2000

  • Framework-Strategy on Gender Equality (5th action programme) 2001-2005

  • Road Map for Equality Between Women and Men 2006-2010


The treaty of amsterdam 1997

The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)

Article 13

  • ..take action to combat discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age and sexual orientation

    Article 3, par..2

  • In all the activities … the Community shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality, between women and men.


Opportunities of article 13

Opportunities of Article 13

New legal base for tackling discrimination including on the basis of sex.

-Directive 2004/113 on equal treatment of women and men in access to goods and provision of services

-Anti discrimination Directives 2000/43 and 2000/78

Introducing new “types” of discrimination in the EU policy agenda.

  • New opportunities for NGOs


Progress

Progress

Action Programme (Framework Strategy 2001-2005)

OBJECTIVE:

“equal opportunities” to “gender equality”

GENDER MAINSTREAMING:

“dimension of equal opportunities” to “objective of equality”

“take equality into account” to “aiming at equality”

The European Social Fund (3rd period 2000-2006)

Double approach

Specific Funds

Transversal policy priority


Backlash since 2006

Backlash since 2006

  • THE ROAD MAP (2006-2010)

    • Objective

    • Political importance

    • Budget

  • The ESF (4th period 2007-2013)

    • Integration of two types of equality

    • Gender equality inferior to equality for all

    • Reduction of projects/ political pressure


Some interlinked reasons for the backlash

Some (interlinked) reasons for the backlash

  • Enlargement

    • Reduction of policy mechanisms at EU

    • Decentralization to national governments

    • Merging of policy issues/fields

  • Political conservatism in Commission and the Parliament

  • Anglo-Saxon approach to inequality(vulnerable people, personal problems)


Perspectives

Perspectives

  • Equality for All (are women included? )

  • Diversity management (is gender included?)

  • Merging of budgets (ex. Progress)

  • Merging of policy issues (ex. Year of Equal Opportunities for All)

  • Merging of civil stake holders (ex. European Social Platform)


Main challenges

Main Challenges

  • How to save specific gender equality institutions (EP, EWL ?? ) and budgets?

  • How to avoid dilution of sex discrimination in anti-discrimination policies?

  • How to avoid to see women as a minority group?

  • How to keep on the policy agenda the structural character of gender inequality?


Cahiers du genre no 44 2008

Cahiers du Genre No. 44/ 2008

Numéro spécial coordonné par Sandrine Dauphin et Réjane Sénac-Slawinski

Gender mainstreaming: De l’égalité des sexes a la diversité?

Article:

La politique du recul. De l’intégration de l’égalité “des sexes” a l’intégration de l’égalité “pour tous”. pages 49-72.


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