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The Scientific Revolution. Ptolemaic System: Almagest – geocentric universe (earth-centered) Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – heliocentric universe (sun centered) This theory was published in 1543

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The Scientific Revolution

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The scientific revolution

The Scientific Revolution

The scientific revolution

  • Ptolemaic System: Almagest – geocentric universe (earth-centered)

  • Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – heliocentric universe (sun centered)

    • This theory was published in 1543

    • It was charged by Catholic and Protestant alike as illogical, unbiblical, and un-Christian

The scientific revolution

  • Ptolemaic System

The scientific revolution

  • Copernican Heliocentric

The scientific revolution

  • Galileo Galilei – 1564 – 1642

    • First to use the telescope for astronomical observations

    • 1632 – Published his Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World – Galileo, although devout in his religious faith, contended that the Bible was not a reliable authority on scientific matters

    • Church was prepared to tolerate the heliocentric theory as long as it was only a proposed hypothesis

    • Galileo was forced to recant, but was believed to have muttered, “And yet it does move.”

The scientific revolution

  • Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727

    • Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University

    • Invented differential calculus independently but at the same time as Leibniz

    • Newton believed, as did other scientists of his day, that the earth was governed by natural laws

    • Research pointed to the idea of universal gravitation – outlined this theory in his Principia Mathematica

The scientific revolution

  • Hobbes vs. Locke –

    • Hobbes – Leviathon (1651)

    • Human beings in their natural state are inclined to a “perpetual and restless desire” desire for power

    • People are self-centered creatures who lack a master

    • They needed a political contract where every person, for the sake of peace and self-defense, set aside personal rights and freedoms, and the people would be ruled by some system of governance, and this would be absolute

The scientific revolution

  • Locke – Second Treatise of Government (1690)

    • Tabula Rasa – at birth every human’s mind is a blank page, and all knowledge comes from experience

    • Believed that people had created a government to protect their natural rights to life, liberty, and property

    • The authority of the government is thus derived from the consent of those governed

    • When the government fails to protect the people’s natural rights and instead, interferes with them by attempting to rule absolutely, the people have a right to rebel

The scientific revolution

  • Homework:

    • Honors – Read pages 382 – 387 in your textbooks

      • Please compose a one-page essay summarizing any one of the major developments of the Scientific Revolution covered in Section 1 of Chapter 16

      • Summarizing means to first explain the theory and second and then to explain its importance to modern society

      • Assignment should be one-page typed and double spaced

      • One-inch margins, 12-size font and Times New Roman font

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