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Switched Storage Architecture Benefits. Computer Measurements Group November 14 th , 2002 Yves Coderre. Evolution of Technology. Disk Technology. Disk Technology. RAID Technology. 1990 5.25 ” 1GB 3600 RPM 1992 5.25 ” 3-9GB 5400 RPM 1996 Various 18-36GB 7200 RPM

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Switched storage architecture benefits
Switched Storage Architecture Benefits

Computer Measurements Group

November 14th, 2002

Yves Coderre





Raid technology
RAID Technology

  • 1990 5.25” 1GB 3600 RPM

  • 1992 5.25” 3-9GB 5400 RPM

  • 1996 Various 18-36GB 7200 RPM

  • 1998 Various 72GB 10K RPM

  • 2000 Various 180GB 15K RPM


Iops measurements
IOPS Measurements

  • Rotational Speed

    • Seek and Latency

  • Linear and Spatial density

  • RAID Protection

  • Read/Write ratio

  • Cache Hits


Theoretical calculation
Theoretical Calculation

  • Theoretical IOPS of a Spindle

    • IOPS = 1000/(Average Seek + Latency)

    • Average Seek = (Ws + Rs)/2

    • Latency (ms) = (1000/RPS)/2

      • Computes to 2.99ms for 10,025 RPM Drives

      • Computes to 2.00ms for 15,00 RPM Drives

    • Ex: 1000/(5.7ms + 2.99) = 115 IOPS


Practical calculation
Practical Calculation

  • Accounting for R/W Ratio & Read Hits

    IOPS = 1000/[(Rs+L)*Rm*Read% + (Ws+L)*Write%]

    Taking into account the # of Spindles/Raid Group, the

    Raid Penalty and type of workload, one can easily

    Calculate the #of Spindles required to process a given

    Number of IOPS for a given workload type.


Sample calculation
Sample Calculation

10,000 IOPS,3/1 R/W Ratio @ 70% Read Hits,

100% Spindle Busy

10K RPM Drives (Rd Seek 5.2ms, Wr Seek 6.0ms)

  • RAID 5 (3+1): 16 Array Groups (64 Drives)

  • RAID 1(2+2): 13 Array Groups (52 Drives)


Sample calculation1
Sample Calculation

10,000 IOPS,3/1 R/W Ratio @ 70% Read Hits,

100% Spindle Busy

10K RPM Drives (Rd Seek 5.2ms, Wr Seek 6.0ms)

  • RAID 5 (3+1): 16 Array Groups (64 Drives)

  • RAID 1 (2+2): 13 Array Groups (52 Drives)

    15K RPM Drives (Rd Seek 3.9ms, Wr Seek 4.5ms)

  • RAID 5 (3+1): 11 Array Groups (44 Drives)

  • RAID 1(2+2): 10 Array Groups (40 Drives)


Channel technology
Channel Technology

  • 1990 Block Mux 3-4.5 MB/Sec

  • 1993 ESCON 17 MB/Sec


Channel technology1
Channel Technology

  • 1990 Block Mux 3-4.5 MB/Sec

  • 1993 ESCON 17 MB/Sec

  • 1996 Fibre Channel 100 MB/Sec

  • 1998 Fibre Channel 200 MB/Sec


Channel technology2
Channel Technology

  • 1990 Block Mux 3-4.5 MB/Sec

  • 1993 ESCON 17 MB/Sec

  • 1996 Fibre Channel 100 MB/Sec

  • 1998 Fibre Channel 200 MB/Sec

  • 2000 FICON 100 MB/Sec

  • 2002 FICON 200 MB/Sec


Channel connectivity
ChannelConnectivity

  • 1990 16 BMUX 72 MB/Sec

  • 1993 16 ESCON 272 MB/Sec


Channel connectivity1
ChannelConnectivity

  • 1990 16 BMUX 72 MB/Sec

  • 1993 16 ESCON 272 MB/Sec

  • 1995 32 ESCON 544 MB/Sec

  • 1996 32 Fibre 3.2 GB/Sec


Channel connectivity2
ChannelConnectivity

  • 1990 16 BMUX 72 MB/Sec

  • 1993 16 ESCON 272 MB/Sec

  • 1995 32 ESCON 544 MB/Sec

  • 1996 32 Fibre 3.2 GB/Sec

  • 2000 32 FICON 3.2 GB/Sec

  • 2002 64 FICON 6.4 GB/Sec


Disk subsystems
Disk Subsystems

  • 1990 3880, 3990 with Attached Disk

  • 1991 ICDA Technology 4GB-32GB


Disk subsystems1
Disk Subsystems

  • 1990 3880, 3990 with Attached Disk

  • 1991 ICDA Technology 4GB-32GB

  • 1993 ICDA 512GB

  • 1995 ICDA 1TB


Disk subsystems2
Disk Subsystems

  • 1990 3880, 3990 with Attached Disk

  • 1991 ICDA Technology 4GB-32GB

  • 1993 ICDA 512GB

  • 1995 ICDA 1TB

  • 1997 RAID Subsystems 5TB

  • 2000 RAID Subsystems 75TB


Io intensity factors
IO Intensity Factors

  • Disk Technology

    • 5 MB to 180 GB Capacity

    • 3600 to 15,000 RPM

  • RAID Technology

    • 5.25” to 3.5” to 1” (1GB to 180GB)


Io intensity factors1
IO Intensity Factors

  • Disk Technology

    • 5 MB to 180 GB Capacity

    • 3600 to 15,000 RPM

  • RAID Technology

    • 5.25” to 3.5” to 1” (1GB to 180GB)

  • Channel Bandwidth & Connectivity

    • 3.5 MB/Sec to 200MB/Sec, 64 Ports

  • Disk Subsystems evolution

    • 1 GB to 100 TB High Performance Subsystem


Growth trends
Growth Trends

Demand for bandwidth is growing faster than capacity requirements



Switch architecture 2000

“(…) the most innovative technology), which built a SAN rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.”

“The company’s new Switch Architecture further demonstrated their commitment to technological innovation and business-enabling solutions, and redefines the industry standard, once again.”

Bob Zimmerman , Giga Group

Jack Scott, Evaluator Group, Inc.

Switch Architecture 2000


Switched fabric architecture
Switched Fabric Architecture rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

3.2GB/s

Data

3.2GB/s

Control

100 Mhz x 2 Bytes = 200MB/Sec

200MB/Sec x 16 Paths =3.2GB/Sec


Switch architecture

32 Hosts Connections: FC, Escon, FICON, iSCSI, NAS rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

Switch Architecture

Control

Data Bandwidth

5 GB/s

Bandwidth

166 Mhz x 2 Bytes = 332MB/Sec

332MB/S x 32 Paths =10.6GB/Sec

64GB

Cache

Shared Memory - HSN

1) 4 paths / (CHA/DKA)

2) 32 paths / SM(Each side)

Frequency : 166MHz

Cache-HSN

1) 2 paths / (CHA/DKA)

2) 8 paths /(CSW for CHA/DKA)

3) 8 paths / (CSW for Cache)

4) 8 paths / (Cache)

5) 32 paths / DKC(CSW-Cache)

6) 16 paths / Cluster(CSW-Cache)

7) 32 paths / DKC (CHA/DKA-CSW)

8) 16 paths / Cluster (CHA/DKA-CSW)

Frequency : 166MHz

32 Cache

Connections

Up to 32 FC-AL backend paths


Paradigm shift
Paradigm rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.Shift


Tangible benefits
Tangible Benefits rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

  • Reduced Total Cost of Ownership

    • Enables Massive Consolidation & Centralization

      • Reduced complexity by simplifying storage networking environments with fewer switches, connections

    • Simplified management

      • Simplified and automated tools reduces time spend managing storage: people can be re-deployed for other tasks.

    • Reduced software licensing and maintenance

      • Through improved capacity utilization: less capacity then lower licensing and maintenance

        • One 6TB versus three 4TB

        • $700K plus

    • Improved Environmental Costs

      • Reduced floor space, power, cooling


Network management requires open standards based approach

ISV1 rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

ISV2

ISVn

ISV1

ISV2

ISVn

CIM/WBEM

IHV1

IHV2

IHVn

IHV1

IHV2

IHVn

ISV1

ISV2

ISVn

IHV1

IHV2

IHVn

Network Management Requires Open Standards-Based Approach

  • Exchanging APIs leads to a growing web of proprietary interfaces

  • Storage networks require an object-based Common Information Model (CIM), for management of mixed environments

  • Web-Based Enterprise Management(WBEM), provides a standard managementinterface for existing Web servers

  • CIM/WBEM is an industry accepted specification that provides a truly open and adaptive standard for heterogeneous storage management

  • Software vendors write to an open interface

    • No need for proprietary commitments

  • Hardware vendors provide a common object- based management interface that still enables them to provide differentiation

CIM


The importance of a message bus
The Importance of a Message Bus rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

ISV1

ISV2

ISVn

CIM/WBEM

  • A CIM object enables ISVs to codeto a common interface

  • However, ISVs still need to communicate with each otherto reduce management complexity

  • A Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) message bus provides a standard interface for communication between ISV products

  • New Application Framework should be based on a CIM/SOAP management message bus.

IHV1

IHV2

IHVn

ISV1

ISV2

ISVn

Management Message Bus: CIM/SOAP

CIM/WBEM

IHV1

IHV2

IHVn


High performance open computing
High Performance, Open Computing rather than a backbone bus into its Storage Sub-Systems to deliver exceptional performance and capacity flexibility.

Computer Measurements Group

Thank You

Yves Coderre


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