Foreign policy in the early years
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Foreign Policy in the Early Years. Major Foreign Policy Theories. Neutrality: Staying out of it – not even choosing sides in an arguement Isolationism: Avoiding any agreements with other countries; just sticking to yourself Involvement: Getting involved in other nations’ situations/problems.

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Major foreign policy theories
Major Foreign Policy Theories

  • Neutrality:

    • Staying out of it – not even choosing sides in an arguement

  • Isolationism:

    • Avoiding any agreements with other countries; just sticking to yourself

  • Involvement:

    • Getting involved in other nations’ situations/problems


What should president adams do to protect american ships
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?

  • Problem:

    • Britain refused to leave Ohio River Valley

    • France wanted this to cause a war b/t America and Britain

    • Chief Justice John Jay sent to Britain to settle

      • = Jay Treaty  British pull troops from O.R.V

        =France views as a betrayal (they don’t like Britain)

        =French navy attacks American ships going to Britain (316 American ships taken!)


What should president adams do to protect american ships1
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?

  • Solution:

    • Adams sent three reps. To France to end attacks

    • Met by secret agents X, Y, and Z “NO PEACE TALKS w/OUT TRIBUTE!”

      • Tribute = money paid in defeat or to protect

      • America won’t pay

    • U.S. built up army and navy and “half war” on sea


What should president adams do to protect american ships2
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?

  • Solution part 2:

    • War not good for country  peace mission

    • Napoleon stopped seizing ships

    • End French/American alliance

    • France won’t pay for ships they had taken

    • Adams’s popularity down!


How should president jefferson deal with pirates
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Problem – Part 1:

    • American ships came between French and British fights (each wanted to stop supplies from going to their enemy)

    • Jefferson tried for neutrality

    • Got worse; began to impress American sailors

      • Impressment: Kidnapping

      • Even open fired on one ship, the Chesapeake


How should president jefferson deal with pirates1
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Solution – part 1:

    • Embargo: Stop trading with other nations

      • No foreign ships could enter U.S. ports and no American ships could leave except to trade with other Americans

      • Hoped it would hurt France and Britain’s economy so much they would stop


How should president jefferson deal with pirates2
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Outcome – part 1:

    • Hurt America more than Europe

    • Act repealed

    • Attacks continued


How should president jefferson deal with pirates3
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Problem – part 2:

    • Pirates from northern Africa (Barbary States) were taking ships and holding crews for ransom

      • In past, Washington and Adams both paid tribute to them

    • Tripoli even declared war on U.S.

    • Keep paying or war?


How should president jefferson deal with pirates4
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Solution – part 2:

    • Small fleet of warships to protect, ended up bombarding Tripoli with cannons

      • The Philadelphia was captured and held for ransom

    • Peace Treaty

      • U.S. pay $60,000 ransom in exchange for a stop in tribute payments


How should president jefferson deal with pirates5
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?

  • Outcome – Part 2:

    • Other Barbary States continued their attacks

    • 1815: America and Europe destroyed pirate bases


What should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?

  • Problem:

    • Britain and France still attacking American ships

    • Madison Offers France and Britain to stop trading with the other if they stop the attacks

    • Napoleon agrees but secretly doesn’t stop attacks

    • Britain refuses

    • Can we handle war with Britain?

      • Southerners and Westerners wanted war (War Hawks) – thought it would make land west of Appalachians safer

        • We thought Britain was supplying Native Americans with weapons via Canada


What should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers1
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?

  • Problem cont.

    • How do we know about the weapon supply?

      • Two Shawnee Indians – Chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, the Prophet

        • were sick of getting kicked off their land so they united Native Americans up and down Mississippi River

        • Followed Tenskwatawa because:

          • He claimed American guns couldn’t harm them

          • Claimed the Great Spirit told them they would win the battle – could tell the future!

        • Uniting is the only way protect/conquer

      • Built a center – Prophetstown


What should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers2
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?

  • Indiana Governor Harrison organized militia to march to Prophetstown

    • Tenskwatawa decided to attack first (Tecumseh was away recruiting) Native Americans attacked them…but Harrison’s militia still won

      • N.A. were not prepared because they believed they were harmless

  • Also….

    We found British guns!!


What should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers3
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?

  • Solution:

    • No more isolationism!

    • Group of leaders called the War Hawks in the West and South fought for America to go to war

    • Declared war on Britain on July 17, 1812….with only 7,000 men and 16 ships

      • Reasons for War…RECAP!

        • Westerners wanted to conquer part of Canada

        • To stop the supply of weapons to the N.A.

        • To stop the attack on American ships


The war of 1812
The War of 1812 settlers?

  • The War: Invasion of Canada

    • Invade Canada = driven back 3 times

    • Lands west of Appalachians safer b/c Tecumseh was killed…momentum down

    • America burnt the city of York (modern day Toronto) – huge British loss


The war of 18121
The War of 1812 settlers?

  • The War: Washington D.C.

    • British invaded Washington D.C. in 1814 and burnt the city!

      • Revenge for Toronto

      • Dolly Madison ran back into burning White House to grab a portrait of George Washington.


The war of 18122
The War of 1812 settlers?

  • The War: Baltimore

    • On Sept. 13 1814, the Baltimore harbor was already being guarded by Americans so British were forced to shell/bomb the whole harbor (= red glow)

    • American flag still flew next morning….”The Star-Spangled Banner.”

      • Francis Scott Key wrote b/c he was so happy

      • Eventually became our National Anthem!


The war of 18123
The War of 1812 settlers?

  • The War: New Orleans

    • General Andrew Jackson was already defending New Orleans (think back – why so important?)

    • Jackson and his men fought one of the strongest American battles

      • 2000 British killed or wounded…only 20 Americans!

      • =Andrew Jackson is a hero!

  • Except…

    • The war was already over! (Treaty was signed several weeks before)

    • However…still brought a lot of American pride

      • Able to beat British again…


  • The war of 18124
    The War of 1812 settlers?

    • Outcome:

      • Before the Battle of New Orleans, Treaty of Ghent was signed

        • Treaty didn’t solve any of the issues that led to the war; pretty much

        • But peace for a little while!


    Recap on president madison
    Recap on President Madison settlers?

    • America’s 4th president

    • Not a great people-person

      • Wife, Dolley Madison, handled many of the social aspects of being president

        • Even a large part of the reason her husband won the position

        • Opened the door for women to become more involved

    • Then, during the White House fire, ran back to get a portrait of George Washington


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