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Foreign Policy in the Early Years. Major Foreign Policy Theories. Neutrality: Staying out of it – not even choosing sides in an arguement Isolationism: Avoiding any agreements with other countries; just sticking to yourself Involvement: Getting involved in other nations’ situations/problems.

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major foreign policy theories
Major Foreign Policy Theories
  • Neutrality:
    • Staying out of it – not even choosing sides in an arguement
  • Isolationism:
    • Avoiding any agreements with other countries; just sticking to yourself
  • Involvement:
    • Getting involved in other nations’ situations/problems
what should president adams do to protect american ships
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?
  • Problem:
    • Britain refused to leave Ohio River Valley
    • France wanted this to cause a war b/t America and Britain
    • Chief Justice John Jay sent to Britain to settle
      • = Jay Treaty  British pull troops from O.R.V

=France views as a betrayal (they don’t like Britain)

=French navy attacks American ships going to Britain (316 American ships taken!)

what should president adams do to protect american ships1
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?
  • Solution:
    • Adams sent three reps. To France to end attacks
    • Met by secret agents X, Y, and Z “NO PEACE TALKS w/OUT TRIBUTE!”
      • Tribute = money paid in defeat or to protect
      • America won’t pay
    • U.S. built up army and navy and “half war” on sea
what should president adams do to protect american ships2
What should President Adams do to protect American Ships?
  • Solution part 2:
    • War not good for country  peace mission
    • Napoleon stopped seizing ships
    • End French/American alliance
    • France won’t pay for ships they had taken
    • Adams’s popularity down!
how should president jefferson deal with pirates
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Problem – Part 1:
    • American ships came between French and British fights (each wanted to stop supplies from going to their enemy)
    • Jefferson tried for neutrality
    • Got worse; began to impress American sailors
      • Impressment: Kidnapping
      • Even open fired on one ship, the Chesapeake
how should president jefferson deal with pirates1
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Solution – part 1:
    • Embargo: Stop trading with other nations
      • No foreign ships could enter U.S. ports and no American ships could leave except to trade with other Americans
      • Hoped it would hurt France and Britain’s economy so much they would stop
how should president jefferson deal with pirates2
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Outcome – part 1:
    • Hurt America more than Europe
    • Act repealed
    • Attacks continued
how should president jefferson deal with pirates3
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Problem – part 2:
    • Pirates from northern Africa (Barbary States) were taking ships and holding crews for ransom
      • In past, Washington and Adams both paid tribute to them
    • Tripoli even declared war on U.S.
    • Keep paying or war?
how should president jefferson deal with pirates4
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Solution – part 2:
    • Small fleet of warships to protect, ended up bombarding Tripoli with cannons
      • The Philadelphia was captured and held for ransom
    • Peace Treaty
      • U.S. pay $60,000 ransom in exchange for a stop in tribute payments
how should president jefferson deal with pirates5
How should President Jefferson deal with pirates?
  • Outcome – Part 2:
    • Other Barbary States continued their attacks
    • 1815: America and Europe destroyed pirate bases
what should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?
  • Problem:
    • Britain and France still attacking American ships
    • Madison Offers France and Britain to stop trading with the other if they stop the attacks
    • Napoleon agrees but secretly doesn’t stop attacks
    • Britain refuses
    • Can we handle war with Britain?
      • Southerners and Westerners wanted war (War Hawks) – thought it would make land west of Appalachians safer
        • We thought Britain was supplying Native Americans with weapons via Canada
what should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers1
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?
  • Problem cont.
    • How do we know about the weapon supply?
      • Two Shawnee Indians – Chief Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, the Prophet
        • were sick of getting kicked off their land so they united Native Americans up and down Mississippi River
        • Followed Tenskwatawa because:
          • He claimed American guns couldn’t harm them
          • Claimed the Great Spirit told them they would win the battle – could tell the future!
        • Uniting is the only way protect/conquer
      • Built a center – Prophetstown
what should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers2
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?
  • Indiana Governor Harrison organized militia to march to Prophetstown
    • Tenskwatawa decided to attack first (Tecumseh was away recruiting) Native Americans attacked them…but Harrison’s militia still won
      • N.A. were not prepared because they believed they were harmless
  • Also….

We found British guns!!

what should president madison do to protect sailors and settlers3
What should President Madison do to protect sailors and settlers?
  • Solution:
    • No more isolationism!
    • Group of leaders called the War Hawks in the West and South fought for America to go to war
    • Declared war on Britain on July 17, 1812….with only 7,000 men and 16 ships
      • Reasons for War…RECAP!
        • Westerners wanted to conquer part of Canada
        • To stop the supply of weapons to the N.A.
        • To stop the attack on American ships
the war of 1812
The War of 1812
  • The War: Invasion of Canada
    • Invade Canada = driven back 3 times
    • Lands west of Appalachians safer b/c Tecumseh was killed…momentum down
    • America burnt the city of York (modern day Toronto) – huge British loss
the war of 18121
The War of 1812
  • The War: Washington D.C.
    • British invaded Washington D.C. in 1814 and burnt the city!
      • Revenge for Toronto
      • Dolly Madison ran back into burning White House to grab a portrait of George Washington.
the war of 18122
The War of 1812
  • The War: Baltimore
      • On Sept. 13 1814, the Baltimore harbor was already being guarded by Americans so British were forced to shell/bomb the whole harbor (= red glow)
      • American flag still flew next morning….”The Star-Spangled Banner.”
        • Francis Scott Key wrote b/c he was so happy
        • Eventually became our National Anthem!
the war of 18123
The War of 1812
  • The War: New Orleans
      • General Andrew Jackson was already defending New Orleans (think back – why so important?)
      • Jackson and his men fought one of the strongest American battles
        • 2000 British killed or wounded…only 20 Americans!
        • =Andrew Jackson is a hero!
  • Except…
    • The war was already over! (Treaty was signed several weeks before)
    • However…still brought a lot of American pride
      • Able to beat British again…
the war of 18124
The War of 1812
  • Outcome:
    • Before the Battle of New Orleans, Treaty of Ghent was signed
      • Treaty didn’t solve any of the issues that led to the war; pretty much
      • But peace for a little while!
recap on president madison
Recap on President Madison
  • America’s 4th president
  • Not a great people-person
    • Wife, Dolley Madison, handled many of the social aspects of being president
      • Even a large part of the reason her husband won the position
      • Opened the door for women to become more involved
  • Then, during the White House fire, ran back to get a portrait of George Washington
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