Purdue improved cowpea storage pics potential for application in west africa
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LOGO IITA. Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) – Potential for Application in West Africa?. Kerstin Hell, Kukom Edoh Ognakossan and Ousmane Coulibaly. Traditional storage system.

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Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) – Potential for Application in West Africa?

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Purdue improved cowpea storage pics potential for application in west africa

LOGO IITA

Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) – Potential for Application in West Africa?

Kerstin Hell, Kukom Edoh OgnakossanandOusmane Coulibaly


Traditional storage system

Traditional storage system

  • Environmental conditions, traditional farming methods, improper grain drying and storage practices facilitate quality reduction and insect infestation in African Post-harvest systems

  • Grain losses due to Insects in West-Africa

    • >30% in maize stores infested with Prostephanustruncatus

    • 10-12 % in maize infested withSitophiluszeamais

  • Several African staple commodities are affected by high losses due to insects – maize, millet, groundnut, rice, sorghum and processed yam and cassava products

  • Post-harvest Loss Network determined losses for cereals of 17.4% to 14.3% (2003 till 2008)


Hermetic storage trials at iita benin

Hermetic storage trials at IITA-Benin

  • Testing of IRRI Superbags(‘09) and PICS-Bags (‘09) for control of P. truncatus & S. zeamaison maize

  • Testing of PICS Bags for control of insects in maize (’10 & ’12) and cassava chips (’11 & ‘12)

  • Destructive sampling

  • Moisture content, insect species, grain losses, holes on bags, CO2 and O2 levels

  • Cost/benefit analysis to determine financial profitability

PICS bag


Purdue improved cowpea storage pics potential for application in west africa

Mortality rate (%) of insectsin IRRI Super bag (ISB) on maize

Mean (± SE) within a column (row) followed by the same uppercase letter (lowercase) are not significantly different from each other at 5% probability level


Purdue improved cowpea storage pics potential for application in west africa

Mortality rate (%) of insectsin IRRI Super bag and PICS on maize

Mean (± SE) within a column (row) followed by the same uppercase letter (lowercase) are not significantly different from each other at 5% probability level


Means numbers of holes on pics bag and ppb

Means numbers of holes on PICS Bag and PPB

PsB

PPB


Effect of pics irri bag on maize post harvest pest after 3 and 6 month

Effect of PICS & IRRI Bag on maize post-harvest pest after 3- and 6-month

  • Pest densities were significantly reduced in hermetic bags compared to control polypropylene Bags (PPB) (P=0.018)

  • In control bag insect densities increased significantly with storage time (P < 0.0001)

  • In hermetic storage, P. truncatuswas found ONLY when maize was artificially infested whereas in the control it all bags had this species


Effects of pics irri bags on maize grain losses after 3 and 6 months

Effects of PICS & IRRI Bags on maize grain losses after 3- and 6-months

  • Losses were significantly lower in PICS & IRRI-bags .

  • No increase of losses in PICS & IRRI with storage.

  • In polypropylene bags losses increased with storage time reaching nearly 18%.


Purdue improved cowpea storage pics potential for application in west africa

Financial benefits of PICS

Maize prices in three localmarkets

Maize prices in three local markets

If bags would be reused for a second storage season the benefit/cost ratio would increase to 3.7, 5.0 and 6.3

Benefit Cost Ratio of the use of PICS bags


Efficacy of pics on cassava chips

Efficacy of PICS on cassava chips

  • Number of P. truncatuswas not significantly different between treatments

  • Losses were beyond economical levels, exceeding 8% after 6 months of storage

  • Oxygen levels in both treatments reached 18.69% and 19.12% after 8 months of storage.


What have we learned

What have we learned?

  • Hermetic storage technology effective for maize,

  • In regions with high levels of P. truncatus(more than 1 Pt per kg) precaution about technology

  • High moisture content of grains in PICS bags can reduce germinability and lead to quality loss

  • Bags are penetrated from inside to outside

  • Technology not effective for traditional cassava and yam chips


What r d is missing

What R&D is missing

  • Need for low-cost energy efficient dryers to improve grain drying to avoid mycotoxins & moisture meters

  • Potentially increase effectiveness of PICS bags by including another technology to reduce insect attack (oils, natural substances, ???)

  • Test PICS bags for other commodities and include further quality parameters (nutrition, processing characteristics, toxins)

  • All stakeholders need to address the persistent high post-harvest losses (advocacy)


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