1. Historical and cultural conditions that gave rise to the perspective. BIO 400 BC - Hippocrates became father of medicine; 200 AD Galen performed autopsies 1800 - Gall created phrenology , the idea of personality determined by bumps on the head
400 BC - Hippocrates became father of medicine; 200 AD Galen performed autopsies
1800 - Gall created phrenology, the idea of personality determined by bumps on the head
1850 - Gage’s personality changed after a spike went through his head; war-time doctors examined bodies; Broca and Wernicke linked body parts to language production and reception
20th century - Psychologists looking for alternative to humanistic, behavioral, and psychoanalytic approaches
Advances in technology gave way for biological perspective
20s - first brain scanning technique (EEG)
Penfield mapped the brain and performed brain surgery;
Hess used electrodes to explore brain
Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Sir Sherrington explored neurons
50s - biomedicine first released
Cultural differences in the correctness of the perspective
Belief in perspective tied to culture’s faith in and possession of technology
· Behaviourism emphasised an external force on development, rewarding or punishing by others. This does not go far in explaining behaviour, and the cognitive perspective answered this by looking at the processes of the mind in relation to actions.
· Individualistic cultures have schemas and mind processes relating more to them as an individual – North America, Europe. Collectivistic cultures have more emphasis on collective success and the approval of others – Asia
· 1950-1970 the Cognitive perspective came to the forefront due to WWII as it focuses on human actions and reasons for them.
The advent of the computer and the computer model also helped in explaining the mind, increasing Cognitive popularity.
Contribution of the cognitive psychology perspective to the scientific study of behavior, and its current standing
-Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
-we have many of these irrational beliefs in reasoning
-Mischel’s Cognitive Model of Personality: everyone has a different set of mental representations that result in different patterns of behavior, even when we are in the same situation
-Behaviorism focused on quantitative research; the cognitive perspective moved the focus toward qualitative research.
Festinger and Carlsmith’s (1959) study on cognitive dissonance (see page 179 in 40 Studies),
Rosenthal and Jacobson’s (1966) study on teacher’s expectancies (see page 92)
-Current Standing: fits well with current mood—“Zeitgeist”—of psychology
Before the introduction of the behavioral perspective, psychology was dominated by Freud's beliefs and the psychoanalytic perspective. This depended largely on qualitative observations and focused on the idea that personality was shaped on events that occurred early in childhood. Freud's main tool was free association and most of his research was in the form of case studies. With the introduction of the learning perspective (with a focus on behaviorism) came the focus on more quantitative research present in the experiments of Watson and Skinner who depended on hard numbers as well as qualitative observations. Essentially, behaviorism made psychology more of a science by impressing the importance of the scientific method in psychological experimentation.
natural selection favors individuals with the most adapted traits for their environment. Our behaviors have been adapted to help us survive.
Ex: phobias of snakes and heights even at early ages, but not guns or knives
the structure and chemistry of the brain and nervous system controls psychology
Ex: less norepinephrine and seratonin causes depression, more dominant Left or Right brain causes different traits such as being more artistic or more verbal
Genes are inherited traits that determine who you are
Ex: gene for inhibited or uninhibited personality implied since children are born with certain levels from birth.
The learning perspective makes assumptions that are characteristic of three key perspectives.
Behavioral Assumptions include:
All animals lean in the same way (rat data is used to explain human behavior)
All learning is achieved by simple processes based on positive or negative reinforcement
The environment shapes the way you act
All actions can be attributed as a response to external forces
Cognitive assumptions include:
If you observe another person doing something, you might repeat the action (shown in Bandura Bo-bo doll experiment)
You do not need a personal reward to lean things
Biological Assumptions include:
People have certain innate abilities, such as the ability to learn
Humans, as a species, have specific ways of learning that differ from those of other species.
Humans differ in some ways of leaning from other humans. For example, some humans may have evolved to be afraid of dangerous animals.
Strengths – physical change leaves evidence. Instincts come form adapted changes.
Weaknesses – There is no way to look at psychological change over time.
Strengths – Chemicals in the brain can be measured and tested.
Weaknesses – it does not take into the account environmental impact on an individual.
Strengths – Genetics explains how children and their parents share the same predispositions.
Weaknesses – Mutations can affect phenotype and genotype.
-- Genetics does not take into account the development of personality.
Learning and cognitive perspectives.
The biological perspective provides a basis of support for the idea that environment plays a key role in determining personality, intellect, and behavior.
Mental processes can be studied scientifically
The biological perspective would agree that they can be studied in the brain scientifically.
The humanist perspective would say that mental processes are based on personal happiness
The psychoanalytical perspective would say that mental processes are studied through the subconscious behavior of the individual.
Behavior can be explained as an outcome of information processes (what you say and do is a direct reflection of your thoughts.
The psychoanalytical perspective would agree and say that what a person says has a deeper meaning and represents a person’s unconscious and thoughts.
The biological perspective would say that a person’s thoughts and behavior are based on their personal chemical make-up.
The behavioral perspective would say that a person’s experiences in life and whether they were rewarded or punished for that particular experience explains their behavior.
Only observable, objective behavior should be studied.
Biological Perspective- studies the inside of the body as well. Ex- brain, chemicals, how we have evolved.
Cognitive- Studies mental events or states, which learning perspective does not think is possible. Ex- Kohler and the Sultan the chimpanzee. When Sultan realized the short stick would not reach the fruit, he sat for awhile and then suddenly realized he could use the short stick to get the long stick to get the fruit. Clearly some sort of mental event took place.
Learning can take place in the absence of reinforcement.
Bio- Animals sometimes do things for the sake of curiosity.
Cognitive- The brain automatically retains certain information even without conscious effort. Ex- latent learning, Tolman with the rats and maze. The rats did better in the maze after they had passed over it and observed it from overhead.
Innate predisposition to learning.
Cognitive- all cultures use language, so there must be a innate predisposition to learn a language.
"pattern" used to view and explain experiences and stimuli; can be defective, i.e. a depressive schema. If so, the person affected will entertain melancholy thoughts, and his/her behavior is likely to reflect such a psychological inner environment.
Psychological pressure felt upon the individual to "go with the group", and he/she may thus change his/her behavior to correspond with that of the group, even if such behavior is contrary to how the person would "normally" act.
See Asch’s Line Study for the application of this concept.
when a person acts or is advised to think in a way that is contradictory to his/her personal beliefs, the person will try to reconcile the two opposing ideas and find justification for the challenging action in his/her mind, to make the action more acceptable, and thus, easier to do.
See Festinger & Carlsmith’s dissonance study.
∑ Correlation study- Riemann, Angleitner, and Sterlau found monozygotic twins (same egg) are more similar than dizygotic twins (correlation between same egg and genetic and personality similarities).∑ Double-blind trial- The drug NicVAX was given randomly and unknowingly to smokers while placebo drugs were also administered unknowingly and randomly. It was found that 33% of the smokers using the real drug quit smoking and 9% of the smokers using the placebo quit smoking. Preformed by Nabi Biopharmaceuticals. Neither participants nor drug administering staff knew which drugs were given to whom. ∑ Experiment- Wheeler, Davidson, and Tomarken found that higher activation in the left hemisphere indicates positive moods and higher activation in the right hemisphere indicates negative moods.
o Brain Scanning Techniques- EEG (electrical activity), CT (x ray photographs), PET (glucose consumption), MRI (magnetic field)
Andersen and Baun (1994)- had subjects describe 2 people, 1 they liked and 1 they didn’t like, then they met someone and were told the person had either the characteristics of the person they liked or the person they didn’t like, monitored the person’s reactions.
Subjects asked questions, schema development determined by response time.
Piaget’s- showed infant toy, then covered it up with a blanket, and saw if child searched for it, took molds of clay, flattened 1, asked which had more mass.
Newton and Contrada (1992)- repressors, 3 min. speech of undesirable quality of their subjects’ personality, some told audience, some not, vitals were monitored.
Self-schema test- asked to respond with “me” or “not me” to words flashed on a screen.
Wellman and Gelman’s- babies looking at objects that disappear, suspended in air, and pass through a solid object.
Rep test- series of groupings that determine constructs.
Pavlov's Salivating Dogs
US-food, UR-salivation, CS-tone of bell, CR-salivation
Watson and "Little Albert" - behaviorism
. conditioned to fear fluffy white objects
. US-loud noise, UR-fear/cry, CS-white rat, CR-fear/cry
Skinner's Skinner Box
. operant chamber with bar to press to dispense reward (food)
. slowly shaped animal behavior with rewards to produce a final desired behavior
Seligman and Learned Helplessness
. dogs were placed in a skinner box that delivered electric shocks
. some dogs could control the shock with their behavior, others could not
. the dogs that had no control at first did not try to escape the shock even when they could
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
. children observed adults in aggressive acts directed toward toys
. later the children tended to imitate these behaviors while in the toy room
CASE STUDY- LIM- Any given individual may be individual
and unrepresentative info may lead to false conclusions and
STRENGTHS- Researchers study individuals or groups in great depth in hope of revealing generalities.
DOUBLE BLIND-LIM- Ethical concerns about the subject
not knowing what is going on. (Usually with drugs)
STRENGTHS- Produces unbiased and accurate results and
leads to the placebo effect.
CORRELATION-LIM- Points only towards predictions that
are usually not perfect.
STRENGTHS- Reveals how closely two things vary together
and how well either predicts the other.
ELECTOCONVULSIVE THERAPY-LIM- Bad reputation
because the patient receives a shock. The patient must be
unconscious and take a muscle relaxant.
STRENGTHS- The patient doesn’t remember anything. Many
improve their state of depression. No brain damage occurs. It saves many from suicide.
MEDICATIONS- LIM- Antipsychotic drugs can produce
sluggishness, tremors, and/or twitches. Must be very aware of
dosage and frequency of consumption. Anti-anxiety drugs reducesymptoms without resolving underlying problems.
STRENGTHS- Dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli.
Can help people learn to cope with frightening situations and
fear triggering stimuli.
Active mental processes are now more focused on in developmental psychology
Has brought understanding of the mental capacities of certain age groups
grounding in empirical, laboratory research
concepts are testable
can be operationally defined and measured
Piaget’s studies were convenient because of the use of his own children
Does not leave room to compensate for individuality
Cannot be generalized to all humans
The behaviour is not fully explained
Ignores physiological aspects
Computer simulations are not always applicable to real life situations
Unable to explain complex cognitive, emotional, and perceptual dimensions of human development
Does not fully explain effects of developmental influences
Focuses on the child himself rather than the child’s interaction with society
seriously underestimates the role of biological and genetic influences
ignores unconscious influences, emotions, or conflicts
Pavlov's Salivating Dogs - Experiment
Strengths: Theory of classical conditioning is universally accepted and has remained unchanged, explained a major proportion of human behavior.
Weaknesses: If neutral stimulus was presented to the subject after the unconditioned stimulus, no conditioning would take place. The subjects would have to be starved prior to the experiment for them to elicit a salivating response toward food, the unconditioned stimulus.
Quantitative results are better because they show the amount of trials it takes for the dog to salivate until the unconditioned stimulus is removed. The dogs will always salivate in the same manner, therefore, qualitative results are ineffective.
Milgram's Shock Study - Experiment
Strengths:The subjects varied in social status, were explicitly told that the monetary payment given to them was simply for their arrival to the laboratory; thus, it ensured that the subjects did not behave in a certain way because they were afraid of not receiving compensation.
Weaknesses: All of the subjects were males who were between the ages of 20 and 50. Ethics of anxiety not followed.
Quantitative results are better because they show the amount of subjects that obeyed the experimenter and continued on with the experiment, despite the cries of agony from the subjects.
Bandura's Bobo Doll: Observation: Strengths: Subjects all of the same age, and relative learning capacities. More than one observer at one time.
Weakness: Extraneous variables: Previously learned actions interfere.Child's character can interfere with the results. Human error: different people judging on the same thing. (ie. Body language) Quantitative is better because due to possible human error through judging, to get a generalized result, number of aggression is better
-Seligman, shocking dogs
-Studies hard to replicate
-Definition is vague/abstract
-Inconsistent number of personality dimensions
-Different names for perspectives
-Unable to fully know the human mind through research
-"black box"--mind is unknowable
-Animals aren't people; findings don't always apply
-Watson's 'Little Albert' study; ethical concerns including the
>mistreatment of a child and possible lifetime damage –
Seligmans 'Learning to be Depressed'; concerns with inflicting pain on animals
Most learning perspective studies use animals which brings up the question of how applicable these studies are to humans –
>doll' study; created contraversy because it proved negative effects that the media can have on people
The biological perspective has been becoming very popular in recent years as psychologists have discovered that almost all psychological disorders can be explained using the biological perspective. For example, alzheimer’s disease has been found to be associated with plaque buildup on neural pathways and erosion of neurons in the brain. The remaining question is one that asks whether the abnormal parts of our bodies cause the psychological disorders, or whether the psychological disorders cause the abnormalities. The mapping of the human genome has led us to the understanding that our genes control more of our personalities and proneness to certain disorders than they were previously given credit for.
The field of Genetic research has advanced knowledge about the body and how it works. However, many of these gains in knowledge come with ethical concerns: in some cases, stem cells from fetuses are used to study the ability to create any part of a human body out of a single cell. Many people are opposed to using these cells from developing fetuses for research.
Aggression- This has been found to have biological explanations. People are born with natural inclinations toward a specific level of arousal and people who need high arousal are often aggressive in nature. These people have high cortical activity. Other perspectives, explain aggression as merely imitation or part of a natural human tendency to fight: they are not wrong, its just that these things (psychological issues) are simultaneously biological and cognitive/learning etc…
- cognitive perspective explains personality through cognitive-affective units, through which we process information to determine behavior
- schemas are cognitive units through which we organize information
- the theory of cognitive selves allows us to strive toward a personal goal of perfecting ourselves
- we process information about ourselves through self-schemas
- more daring people have an internal locus of control, while more timid people have an external locus of control
- cognitive therapy attempts to change how the patient processes information
- prototypes allow us to recognize unfamiliar objects and maintain an image of a quintessential one
The strength of the cognitive perspective is that it recognizes many of the factors that influence human behavior, unlike the biological and behavioral perspectives.
In the biological prospective, all things are solved with procedures that work with the body, biologically. In applications of the prospective, therapies would include Drug Medicine, Electro convulsive Therapy, and Psycho surgery. All of these therapies help the body to solve the problems at hand. The most common of all these are prescription drugs. Today, many different prescription drugs are available to treat many psychological disorders such as depression, bi-polar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia. The next most common is Electro convulsive therapy. Electro convulsive therapy is less barbaric than one might think; the patient is always unconscious and given muscle relaxants before hand to prevent injury. The subject's brain is shocked and thirty minutes later, the patient will wake up remembering nothing of it. Electro convulsive therapy (ECT) is generally only used in severe cases of depression or when drug therapy is not affective. Psycho surgery is usually only used in cases of extreme disorder because it removes or damages brain tissue. The most well known of these surgeries is the lobotomy; this is where the frontal lobes of the brain are disconnected from the rest of the brain. The surgery was intended only to separate emotion and thought, but effects include lethargy, and impulsive personalities. Today, psycho surgery is rarely performed, and lobotomies almost never occur. Psycho surgery is only used in cases of severe seizures or in cases of extreme obsessive-compulsive disorder. The ultimate downside of these surgeries is that they are irreversible.
(see Burger pages 470-474 and Myers pages 600-602)
Cognitive Therapy is therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting, assuming thoughts intervence with events and our reactions.
Goal is to help rid patients of self-defeating and/or irrational thoughts through the process of cognitive restructuring
George Kelly’s fixed-role therapy involves role-play to try new constructs
Albert Ellis’ rational emotive therapy (activating experience, irrational belief, and emotional consequence) to identify and fix flaws in thinking patterns
Self-Instructional Training- identify thoughts driving disturbing emotions and help individuals develop specific cognitive strategies for dealing with remedying those problems on their own, in daily life
Used to treat depressed patients- Aaron Beck helped to point out irrationalities so the patient could acknowledge and overcome their negative self-thoughts; Adele Rabin made patients focus only on their good behaviors and aspects to overcome depression; cognitive-behavior therapy is used to alter a person’s thinking habits in order to change their negative behaviors by instilling a new, positive though process
Cognitive theories can be used in teaching: situated learning; by learning how children think, teaching styles can be adapted to best suit their methods of learning; memory can be altered, influenced, and understood through the use of cognitive theories
Positive verses negative reinforcement: rewards yield better results. If you want someone, like a child, to continue doing something, give him or her a reward.
Teachers should use a variety of methods to accommodate students because they all learn in different ways.
Langer and Rodin: People in nursing homes need to be given some form of responsibility, as small as a plant for example. They need to make decisions for themselves.
Parenting Styles: Eron et,al. and Bandura’s bobo doll
study: Children who watch more violent television shows are more likely to commit crimes than those who watch less television. Parents should use parental controls and keep watch as to how much and what their children are watching.
Modeling: Children tend to follow what they see so parents should be prosocial models, positive and helpful.