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The Industrial Revolution. Late 18 c : French Economic Advantages. Napoleonic Code. French communal law. Free contracts Open markets Uniform & clear commercial regulations Standards weights & measures. Established technical schools.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The

Industrial

Revolution

slide2

Late 18c: French Economic Advantages

  • Napoleonic Code.
  • French communal law.
    • Free contracts
    • Open markets
    • Uniform & clear commercial regulations
  • Standards weights & measures.
  • Established technical schools.
  • The government encouraged & honored inventors & inventions.
  • Bank of France  European modelproviding a reliable currency.
slide3

French Economic Disadvantages

  • Years of war
    • Supported the AmericanRevolution.
    • French Revolution.
    • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars
  • Heavy debts.
  • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts.
  • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.
slide4

Why Did

Industrialization

Begin in

England First?

slide5

Industrial England:

"Workshop

of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

slide9

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

slide10

Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

  • More powerful than water is coal.
  • More powerful than wood is iron.
  • Innovations make steel feasible.
    • “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”
    • “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.
    • Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.
slide14

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”

slide17

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].
  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].
  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.
  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
slide19

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.
  • 12-14 hour day.
  • Dangerous conditions.
  • Mind-numbing monotony.
slide23

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution

slide32

Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.

slide35

The "Haves":

Bourgeois Life

Thrived on the

Luxuries of the

Industrial Revolution

slide40

The "Have-Nots":

The Poor,

The Over-Worked,

& the Destitute

slide43

Problems of Pollution

The Silent Highwayman - 1858

slide56

The Luddites: 1811-1816

Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]

slide59

Peterloo Massacre, 1819

BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!

slide61

The “Peoples’ Charter”

  • Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.
  • Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.
  • Votes for all men.
  • Equal electoral districts.
  • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.
  • Payment for Members of Parliament.
  • Annual general elections.
  • The secret ballot.
slide62

The Chartists

A female Chartist

A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight.

slide63

Anti-Corn Law League, 1845

  • Give manufactures more outlets for their products.
  • Expand employment.
  • Lower the price of bread.
  • Make British agriculture more efficient and productive.
  • Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition.
  • Promote international peace through trade contact.
slide64

New Ways

of

Thinking

slide65

Thomas Malthus

  • Population growth willoutpace the food supply.
  • Starvation is unavoidable!
  • War, disease, or faminecould control population.
  • The poor should have less children.
  • Food supply will then keep up with population.
slide66

David Ricardo

  • “Iron Law of Wages.”
  • When wages are high,workers have morechildren.
  • More children create alarge labor surplus thatdepresses wages.
  • Government should not help the poor.
slide67

The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.
  • There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.
  • Government should
  • intervene in clear
  • cases of abuse.
slide69

The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists

  • People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals.
  • Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.
  • Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
slide70

Scientific Socialism

  • Human history is a struggle between economic groups.
  • Five Stages
  • Agricultural
  • Pre-Industrial
  • Industrial
  • Post-Industrial
  • Classless Society
  • (final stage)

Karl Marx

slide71

Br. Govt. Response

to the Dislocation

Created by

Industrialization

slide72

Government Response

  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].
  • Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions
    • Factory Act[1833] – child labor.
  • New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.
    • Poor houses.
  • Reform Bill[1832] – broadens thevote for the cities.
slide75

The Results of

Industrialization

at the end of the 19c

slide76

By 1850: Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent

  • Northeast France.
  • Belgium.
  • The Netherlands.
  • Western German states.
  • Northern Italy
  • East Germany  Saxony
slide80

The Politics of Industrialization

  • State ownership of some industries.
    • RRs  Belgium & most of Germany.
  • Tariffs  British Corn Laws.
  • National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes.
    • Bank of England.
    • Bank of France.
  • Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets.
  • New legislation to:
    • Establish limited liability.
    • Create rules for the formation of corporations.
  • Postal system.
  • Free trade zones  Ger. Zollverein
slide81

Bibliographic Sources

  • “Images of the Industrial Revolution.”Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html
  • “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c-eight/primary.htm
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