The
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 81

The Industrial Revolution PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Industrial Revolution. Late 18 c : French Economic Advantages. Napoleonic Code. French communal law. Free contracts Open markets Uniform & clear commercial regulations Standards weights & measures. Established technical schools.

Download Presentation

The Industrial Revolution

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The industrial revolution

The

Industrial

Revolution


The industrial revolution

Late 18c: French Economic Advantages

  • Napoleonic Code.

  • French communal law.

    • Free contracts

    • Open markets

    • Uniform & clear commercial regulations

  • Standards weights & measures.

  • Established technical schools.

  • The government encouraged & honored inventors & inventions.

  • Bank of France  European modelproviding a reliable currency.


The industrial revolution

French Economic Disadvantages

  • Years of war

    • Supported the AmericanRevolution.

    • French Revolution.

    • Early 19c  Napoleonic Wars

  • Heavy debts.

  • High unemployment  soldiersreturning from the battlefronts.

  • French businessmen were afraid to take risks.


The industrial revolution

Why Did

Industrialization

Begin in

England First?


The industrial revolution

Industrial England:

"Workshop

of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte


The industrial revolution

The Enclosure Movement


The industrial revolution

“Enclosed” Lands Today


The industrial revolution

Metals, Woolens, & Canals


The industrial revolution

Early Canals

Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure


The industrial revolution

Mine & Forge [1840-1880]

  • More powerful than water is coal.

  • More powerful than wood is iron.

  • Innovations make steel feasible.

    • “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”

    • “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.

    • Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.


The industrial revolution

Coalfields & Industrial Areas


The industrial revolution

Coal Mining in Britain:1800-1914


The industrial revolution

Young Coal Miners


The industrial revolution

Child Labor in the Mines

Child “hurriers”


The industrial revolution

British Pig Iron Production


The industrial revolution

Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System”

The “Water Frame”


The industrial revolution

Factory Production

  • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, labor].

  • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].

  • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor.

  • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.


The industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England


The industrial revolution

The Factory System

  • Rigid schedule.

  • 12-14 hour day.

  • Dangerous conditions.

  • Mind-numbing monotony.


The industrial revolution

Textile FactoryWorkers in England


The industrial revolution

British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812


The industrial revolution

Young “Bobbin-Doffers”


The industrial revolution

New Inventions

of the

Industrial Revolution


The industrial revolution

John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”


The industrial revolution

The Power Loom


The industrial revolution

James Watt’s Steam Engine


The industrial revolution

Steam Tractor


The industrial revolution

Steam Ship


The industrial revolution

An Early Steam Locomotive


The industrial revolution

Later Locomotives


The industrial revolution

The Impact of the Railroad


The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.


The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits


The industrial revolution

Crystal Palace:British Ingenuity on Display


The industrial revolution

The "Haves":

Bourgeois Life

Thrived on the

Luxuries of the

Industrial Revolution


The industrial revolution

19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche


The industrial revolution

Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie


The industrial revolution

Stereotype of the Factory Owner


The industrial revolution

“Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life


The industrial revolution

The "Have-Nots":

The Poor,

The Over-Worked,

& the Destitute


The industrial revolution

Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830


The industrial revolution

Industrial Staffordshire


The industrial revolution

Problems of Pollution

The Silent Highwayman - 1858


The industrial revolution

The New Industrial City


The industrial revolution

Early-19c Londonby Gustave Dore


The industrial revolution

Worker Housing in Manchester


The industrial revolution

Factory Workers at Home


The industrial revolution

Workers Housing in Newcastle Today


The industrial revolution

The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!


The industrial revolution

Private Charities: Soup Kitchens


The industrial revolution

Govt. Response: The Poor House


The industrial revolution

Women’s Poor House


The industrial revolution

Men’s Poor House


The industrial revolution

Children’s Poor House


The industrial revolution

Protests / Reformers


The industrial revolution

The Luddites: 1811-1816

Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]


The industrial revolution

The Luddite Triangle


The industrial revolution

The Luddites


The industrial revolution

Peterloo Massacre, 1819

BritishSoldiers Fire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!


The industrial revolution

The Chartists


The industrial revolution

The “Peoples’ Charter”

  • Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.

  • Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.

  • Votes for all men.

  • Equal electoral districts.

  • Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.

  • Payment for Members of Parliament.

  • Annual general elections.

  • The secret ballot.


The industrial revolution

The Chartists

A female Chartist

A physical force—Chartists arming for the fight.


The industrial revolution

Anti-Corn Law League, 1845

  • Give manufactures more outlets for their products.

  • Expand employment.

  • Lower the price of bread.

  • Make British agriculture more efficient and productive.

  • Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition.

  • Promote international peace through trade contact.


The industrial revolution

New Ways

of

Thinking


The industrial revolution

Thomas Malthus

  • Population growth willoutpace the food supply.

  • Starvation is unavoidable!

  • War, disease, or faminecould control population.

  • The poor should have less children.

  • Food supply will then keep up with population.


The industrial revolution

David Ricardo

  • “Iron Law of Wages.”

  • When wages are high,workers have morechildren.

  • More children create alarge labor surplus thatdepresses wages.

  • Government should not help the poor.


The industrial revolution

The Utilitarians:Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

  • The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.

  • There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safetynet.

  • Government should

  • intervene in clear

  • cases of abuse.


The industrial revolution

Jeremy Bentham


The industrial revolution

The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists

  • People as a society would operate and own themeans of production, not individuals.

  • Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.

  • Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].


The industrial revolution

Scientific Socialism

  • Human history is a struggle between economic groups.

  • Five Stages

  • Agricultural

  • Pre-Industrial

  • Industrial

  • Post-Industrial

  • Classless Society

  • (final stage)

Karl Marx


The industrial revolution

Br. Govt. Response

to the Dislocation

Created by

Industrialization


The industrial revolution

Government Response

  • Abolition of slavery in the coloniesin 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].

  • Sadler Commissionto look intoworking conditions

    • Factory Act[1833] – child labor.

  • New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.

    • Poor houses.

  • Reform Bill[1832] – broadens thevote for the cities.


The industrial revolution

British Reform Bill of 1832


The industrial revolution

British Reform Bills


The industrial revolution

The Results of

Industrialization

at the end of the 19c


The industrial revolution

By 1850: Zones of Industrializationon the European Continent

  • Northeast France.

  • Belgium.

  • The Netherlands.

  • Western German states.

  • Northern Italy

  • East Germany  Saxony


The industrial revolution

Industrialization By 1850


The industrial revolution

Railroads on the Continent


The industrial revolution

Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900


The industrial revolution

The Politics of Industrialization

  • State ownership of some industries.

    • RRs  Belgium & most of Germany.

  • Tariffs  British Corn Laws.

  • National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes.

    • Bank of England.

    • Bank of France.

  • Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets.

  • New legislation to:

    • Establish limited liability.

    • Create rules for the formation of corporations.

  • Postal system.

  • Free trade zones  Ger. Zollverein


The industrial revolution

Bibliographic Sources

  • “Images of the Industrial Revolution.”Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html

  • “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c-eight/primary.htm


  • Login