Quality tools and techniques
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Quality Tools and Techniques. Practicing quality techniques Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones. Session plan. Demonstrate the differing types of quality tools/techniques attributed to the Japanese. Illustrate the applicability of tools and techniques of quality improvement.

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Quality tools and techniques

Quality Tools and Techniques

Practicing quality techniques

Author:

Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones


Session plan

Session plan

  • Demonstrate the differing types of quality tools/techniques attributed to the Japanese.

  • Illustrate the applicability of tools and techniques of quality improvement.

  • Describe individual applications of appropriate quality tools.


Continual improvement

Continual improvement

  • Continual improvement is a type of change that is focused on increasing the effectiveness and/or efficiency of an organization to fulfil its policy and objectives.

  • It is not limited to quality initiatives.

  • Improvement in business strategy, business results, customer, employee and supplier relationships can be subject to continual improvement.

    Source: IQA. 2007


Basic steps in problem solving

Basic steps in problem solving

  • Define the problem and establish an improvement goal.

  • Collect data.

  • Analyze the problem.

  • Generate potential solutions.

  • Choose a solution.

  • Implement the solution.

  • Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal.


Traditionally a japanese samurai carried seven tools into battle

Traditionally, a Japanese Samurai carried seven tools into battle.

  • After World War II the Japanese adopted 'quality' as a philosophy for economic recovery and, in line with this traditional approach, sought seven tools to accomplish the economic rejuvenation. The seven tools chosen were:

    • Histograms

    • Cause and Effect Diagrams

    • Check Sheets

    • Pareto Diagrams

    • Graphs

    • Control Charts

    • Scatter Diagrams


The seven tools

Control Chart

Pareto Chart

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Scatter Plot

Ishikawa Chart

Data Collecting

Stratification

Histogram

The seven tools


Techniques for improvement

Techniques For Improvement.

Scatter Diagrams

Inputs

Outputs

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Input-Output analysis

Flow Charts

Cause-Effect Diagrams

Analysis

Pareto

Why - why analysis

Why?

Why?

Why?


Cause and effect diagram

Methods

Materials

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Effect

Environment

People

Equipment

Cause-and-Effect Diagram


Check sheet

Monday

  • Billing Errors

    • Wrong Account

    • Wrong Amount

  • A/R Errors

    • Wrong Account

    • Wrong Amount

Check Sheet


Pareto analysis

Number of defects

Offcentre

Smeared

print

Missing

label

Other

Loose

80% of the problems may be attributed to 20% of the

causes.

Pareto Analysis


Statistical process control spc

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

  • A process by which a product/service is checked during its creation using certain set parameters and statistical techniques to measure and analyze the variation within the process.

  • WHAT IS IT USED FOR:

  • To monitor the consistency of product/service quality and maintain processes to a fixed target as designed.

  • To drive improvement actions within an organization.


Control chart

1020

UCL

1010

1000

990

LCL

980

970

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Control Chart


Run chart

Diameter

Time (Hours)

Run Chart


Tracking improvements

UCL

UCL

UCL

LCL

LCL

Additional improvements

made to the process

LCL

Process centred

and stable

Process not centred

and not stable

Tracking Improvements


Process variation

Process Variability

Variations due to:

  • Special Causes:

  • Machine is breaking

  • Untrained operative

  • Machine movement

  • Process has changed

  • Natural Causes:

  • Temperature variation

  • Material variation

  • Customer differences

  • Operator performance

Early and visible

warning required

Must be monitored

Process Variation


What can be controlled using spc

What can be controlled using SPC?

  • VARIABLES.

  • Variable Measuresare those that can be measured on a continuous scale, for example length, time, weight....

  • ATTRIBUTES.

  • Attributes are characteristics that are assessed by judgment and are dichotomous, i.e. have two states such as right or wrong, looks OK or not OK.


Quality at the source

Quality at the source

The philosophy of making each worker responsible for the quality of his or her work.


Genichi taguchi s theory of quality loss

Genichi Taguchi’s theory of Quality loss

  • Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and suited to the market.

  • Losses begin to accrue as soon as a quality characteristic of a product or service deviates from the nominal value.

  • Once the specification limits are reached the loss suddenly becomes positive and constant, regardless of the deviation from the nominal value beyond the specification limits.


Taguchi loss function

Traditionalcost function

Cost

Taguchicost function

Lowerspec

Upperspec

Target

Taguchi Loss Function


Quality tools and techniques 1310029

1

2

3

4

5

Quality Function Deployment

The House of Quality

KEY

weak (1)

Customer Perceptions

Design Characteristics

strong (3)

very strong (9)

Customer Attributes

Absolute Weight

attribute weights x relationship strength

Sales Points

1= weak; 10 = strong

Feasibility

1=easy, 10=difficult

(AW x SP) / Feasibility

Evaluation


Qfd the house of quality

Engineering

Characteristics

Parts

Characteristics

Customer

Requirements

Key Process

Operations

Engineering

Characteristics

Production

Requirements

Parts

Characteristics

Key Process

Operations

QFD The House Of Quality.

The QFD methodology has been developed into a continuous process, and it can be applied equally well to service or manufacturing environments


Summary

Summary

  • We have looked at a range of quality tools/techniques for improvement.

  • Statistical process control.

  • Taguchi’s theory of quality loss.

  • Quality Function deployment.


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