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第 3 章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 3 章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生. pp.86,91-92,104-105,114-118,120. 一、遺傳影響( hereditary influences ). (一)研究遺傳影響的方法 家庭研究 Kinship studies Twin design and adoption design. (二)基因和環境影響的估計 1. How much? (1) The concordance rates :

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第 3 章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生

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3

第3章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生

pp.86,91-92,104-105,114-118,120


Hereditary influences

一、遺傳影響(hereditary influences)

  • (一)研究遺傳影響的方法

  • 家庭研究

  • Kinship studies

  • Twin design and adoption design


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(二)基因和環境影響的估計

  • 1. How much?

    (1) The concordance rates:

  • The percentages of pairs of people in which both members of the pair display the trait if one member has it.

  • 29/56 co-twins(identical twins) of gay were also gay

  • 12/54 co-twins(fraternal twins) of gay were also gay


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(2) The heritability coefficient

H = (r identical twins-r fraternal twins) x 2

r:correlation coefficient

NSE:Nonshared environmental influences

NSE = 1-r(identical twins reared together)

SE : Shared environmental influences

SE=1-(H+NSE)


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2. How? (遺傳和環境的交互作用)

(1) Waddington (1957):canalization

嬰兒知覺、動作發展

智力、人格

(2) Gottesman (1963)

  • The range-of-reaction principle


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(3) Scarr and McCartney (1983)

  • Passive genotype/environment

    correlation

  • Evocative genotype/environment

    correlation

  • Active genotype/environment correlation


4 epigenesis

(4)Epigenesis

  • 雙向交互影響


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二、胎兒發展

發展過程

1.受精卵期(The germinal period)

  • 受精、細胞分裂、附著

  • 第2星期末,胎盤開始發展

    2.胚胎期(The period of the embryo)(附著-8 weeks)

  • 器官、系統發展重要時期

  • 胚胎形成3層:

    外胚:神經系統和皮膚

    中胚:肌肉、骨骼、循環系統、內部器官

    內胚:消化系統、肺、泌尿管、腺體

    3.胎兒期(The period of the fetus)

  • 器官、系統大小與功能發展和完成


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三、產前環境的影響

  • (一)致畸因素

  • 在胎兒發展期間,任何導致損害的環境因素

  • 影響程度的因素:

  • 量與時間長短

  • 遺傳

  • 其他負向因素

  • 年齡


Critical period sensitive period

(二)關鍵期(critical period)或敏感期(sensitive period)

  • 關鍵期

  • 在一特定的時間內,某特定身體或行為會發展迅速,因此這段時間內,某些環境因素相當重要,若環境有害,且造成損害,則無法恢復(該時段內為發展,則將不可能發展)

  • 敏感期

  • 在一特定的時間內,某特定身體或行為會發展迅速,因此這段時間內,某些環境因素相當重要,若環境有害,且造成損害,要恢復則相當困難


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(三)胎兒發展的一些致畸因素

  • 藥物

  • 酗酒

  • 抽煙

  • 母親疾病

  • 壓力

  • 母親年齡


The birth process

四、生產過程(The birth process)


Assessing the baby s condition

五、新生兒的評估(Assessing the baby’s condition)

  • 1.Apgar test

  • 2.Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)


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