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第 3 章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生

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第 3 章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生. pp.86,91-92,104-105,114-118,120. 一、遺傳影響( hereditary influences ). (一)研究遺傳影響的方法 家庭研究 Kinship studies Twin design and adoption design. (二)基因和環境影響的估計 1. How much? (1) The concordance rates :

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第3章 生物基礎、胎兒發展與出生

pp.86,91-92,104-105,114-118,120

hereditary influences
一、遺傳影響(hereditary influences)
  • (一)研究遺傳影響的方法
  • 家庭研究
  • Kinship studies
  • Twin design and adoption design
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(二)基因和環境影響的估計
  • 1. How much?

(1) The concordance rates:

  • The percentages of pairs of people in which both members of the pair display the trait if one member has it.
  • 29/56 co-twins(identical twins) of gay were also gay
  • 12/54 co-twins(fraternal twins) of gay were also gay
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(2) The heritability coefficient

H = (r identical twins-r fraternal twins) x 2

r:correlation coefficient

NSE:Nonshared environmental influences

NSE = 1-r(identical twins reared together)

SE : Shared environmental influences

SE=1-(H+NSE)

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2. How? (遺傳和環境的交互作用)

(1) Waddington (1957):canalization

嬰兒知覺、動作發展

智力、人格

(2) Gottesman (1963)

  • The range-of-reaction principle
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(3) Scarr and McCartney (1983)
  • Passive genotype/environment

correlation

  • Evocative genotype/environment

correlation

  • Active genotype/environment correlation
4 epigenesis
(4)Epigenesis
  • 雙向交互影響
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二、胎兒發展

發展過程

1.受精卵期(The germinal period)

  • 受精、細胞分裂、附著
  • 第2星期末,胎盤開始發展

2.胚胎期(The period of the embryo)(附著-8 weeks)

  • 器官、系統發展重要時期
  • 胚胎形成3層:

外胚:神經系統和皮膚

中胚:肌肉、骨骼、循環系統、內部器官

內胚:消化系統、肺、泌尿管、腺體

3.胎兒期(The period of the fetus)

  • 器官、系統大小與功能發展和完成
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三、產前環境的影響
  • (一)致畸因素
  • 在胎兒發展期間,任何導致損害的環境因素
  • 影響程度的因素:
  • 量與時間長短
  • 遺傳
  • 其他負向因素
  • 年齡
critical period sensitive period
(二)關鍵期(critical period)或敏感期(sensitive period)
  • 關鍵期
  • 在一特定的時間內,某特定身體或行為會發展迅速,因此這段時間內,某些環境因素相當重要,若環境有害,且造成損害,則無法恢復(該時段內為發展,則將不可能發展)
  • 敏感期
  • 在一特定的時間內,某特定身體或行為會發展迅速,因此這段時間內,某些環境因素相當重要,若環境有害,且造成損害,要恢復則相當困難
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(三)胎兒發展的一些致畸因素
  • 藥物
  • 酗酒
  • 抽煙
  • 母親疾病
  • 壓力
  • 母親年齡
assessing the baby s condition
五、新生兒的評估(Assessing the baby’s condition)
  • 1.Apgar test
  • 2.Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
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