Electrical Systems Efficiency
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Electrical Systems Efficiency. Bill Tschudi, LBNL [email protected] Electrical Systems Efficiency. Electrical distribution systems Lighting Standby generation On-site generation. Electrical Distribution . Every power conversion (AC DC, DC AC, AC AC) loses some power and creates heat

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Electrical systems efficiency l.jpg
Electrical Systems Efficiency

  • Electrical distribution systems

  • Lighting

  • Standby generation

  • On-site generation


Electrical distribution l.jpg
Electrical Distribution

  • Every power conversion (AC DC, DC AC, AC AC) loses some power and creates heat

  • Distributing higher voltage is more efficient and saves capital cost (wire size is smaller)

  • Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS’s) efficiency varies

  • Power supplies in IT equipment efficiency varies


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Overall Power Use in Data Centers

Courtesy of Michael Patterson, Intel Corporation


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5V

Internal Drive

PWM/PFC

Switcher

Unregulated DC

To Multi Output

Regulated DC

Voltages

Bypass

12V

External Drive

3.3V

I/O

12V

1.5/2.5V

In

Out

DC/DC

Memory Controller

AC/DC

1.1V-1.85V

12V

DC/DC

m Processor

Battery/Charger

Rectifier

Inverter

3.3V

SDRAM

3.3V

Graphics Controller

Voltage Regulator Modules

AC/DC Multi output

Power Supply

Data Center Power Conversions

AC

DC

DC

AC

Server

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

Power Distribution Unit (PDU)


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UPS Factory Measurements

Typical Operation




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Facility-Level DC Distribution

380V.DC

480 Volt AC



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AC System Loss Compared to DC

7-7.3% measured improvement

2-5% measured improvement

Rotary UPS



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Data Center Lighting

  • Lights are on and nobody’s home

  • Lighting controls are well proven – why not use them?

  • Small benefit but easy to accomplish – also saves HVAC energy

  • DC lighting would compliment DC distribution


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Standby Generation Loss

  • Several load sources

    • Heaters

    • Battery chargers

    • Transfer switches

    • Fuel management systems

  • Heaters (many operating hours) use more electricity than the generator will ever produce (few operating hours)

  • Opportunity may be to reduce or eliminate heating, batteries, and chargers



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On-Site Generation

  • On-site generation with utility back-up

  • Thermal host required for combined heat and power

    • Absorption or adsorption chillers

    • Other campus use

  • Renewable sources (future)

    • Fuel cells

    • Solar

    • Wind


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Take Aways

  • Distributing higher voltage (AC or DC) is more efficient

  • Electrical power conversions are inefficient

  • Highly efficient UPS’s should be specified

  • Highly efficient IT equipment power supplies should be specified

  • Lighting is a small but low hanging opportunity

  • Standby generation losses can be minimized

  • On-site generation can improve reliability and efficiency


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website: http://hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters/


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