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Drill:. Calculate the solubility of MgF 2 in 0.10 M KF. K sp MgF 2 = 6.4 x 10 -9. Drill: Calculate the volume of Cl 2 formed at 27 o C under 75 kPa when xs molten NaCl is electrolyzed with 96.5 mA for 5.0 mins. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry.

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Drill

Drill:

  • Calculate the solubility of MgF2 in 0.10 M KF.

  • KspMgF2 = 6.4 x 10-9


Drill

Drill: Calculate the volume of Cl2 formed at 27oC under 75 kPa when xs molten NaCl is electrolyzed with 96.5 mA for 5.0 mins.


Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry


Drill

Nuclear Chemistry

  • The study of reactions that take place in the nuclei of atoms


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Chemical Reactions

  • In normal chemical reactions, only the electrons are involved


Radioactive nuclei

Radioactive Nuclei

  • A nucleus that spontaneously decomposes


Isotopes

Isotopes

  • Elements with the same atomic number, but different mass number


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Isotopes

  • Elements with = numbers of protons, but  numbers of neutrons


Isotopes1

Isotopes

  • All elements have at least one radioactive isotope


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Radiation

  • The emission of particles & rays from spontaneously decomposing nuclei


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Modes of Decay

  • Alpha emission

  • Beta emission

  • Gamma emission

  • Positron emission

  • K-electron capture


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Alpha Particle (a)

  • Helium nucleus

  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons

  • mass = 4 amu

  • charge = +2

  • Penetration power: small


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Beta Particle (b)

  • High speed electron

  • 1 electron

  • mass = 1/1836 amu

  • charge = -1

  • Penetration power: medium


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Gamma Ray (g)

  • High energy photon

  • Electromagnetic wave

  • mass = 0

  • charge = 0

  • Penetration power: great


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Positron (p)

  • Positive electron

  • 1 positive electron

  • mass = 1/1836 amu

  • charge = +1

  • Penetration power: medium


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K-capture

  • The capture of an inner level e- by the nucleus

  • 1 electron

  • mass = 1/1836 amu

  • charge = -1


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Nuclear Symbol

  • Alpha:24Heor24a

  • Beta: -10eor –10b

  • Gamma: 0 0

  • Positron: +10e

  • K-electron: -10e


Drill

Fission

  • The splitting of a nucleus into smaller nuclei involving the release of energy


Drill1

Drill:

  • Name five types of radiation


Drill

Drill:

  • Name 3 common types of radiation


Drill

Fusion

  • The combining of smaller nuclei into a larger one involving the release of energy


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Transmutation Rxns

  • Nuclear reactions in which one element is changed into another


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Transmutation Rxns

  • Reactions in which the nucleus of an atom is changed


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Transmutation Rxns

  • Both fission & fusion are examples of transmutation rxns


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Transmutation Rxns

  • Can occur through emission of or bombardment by radioactive particles


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Transmutation Rxns

  • b emission of Pm-142

  • a bombardment of Th-231


Ap chm hw

AP CHM HW

  • Read: Chapter 19

  • Problems: 5 & 7

  • Page: 552


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CHM II HW

  • Read: Chapter 26

  • Problems: 31 & 35

  • Page: 1036


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Transmutation Rxns

  • a emission ofU-238 followed by two separate b emissions:


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Transmutation Rxns

  • a bombardment ofTh-235 followed by two separate b emission:


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Drill: Predict Prod

  • Neutron absorption by U-238 followed by two separate b emission:


Drill

Drill: Predict Products

  • a emission of O-18 followed by a

  • b emission:


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Predict Products

  • K-capture by V-45 followed by neutron emission then a emission


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Predict Products

  • b absorption by V-45 followed by neutron emission then a emission


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Decay Rate

  • The rate at which radioactive nuclei break down


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Half-Life

  • The time it takes for 50 % of the radioactive nuclei to decompose


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Decay Rate

  • Rate = kDX/Dt

  • ln(Xi/Xf) = kt1/2

  • k = 0.693/t1/2

  • t1/2 = half-life


Drill2

Drill:

Predict the products in each step when

Boron-12 goes through a bombardment followed by b emission.


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1st Order Age Dating Formula

  • ln(Xi/Xf)t1/2

  • 0.693

t =


Drill

  • Calculate the age of a skeleton found with 0.125 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %.

  • t1/2 C-14 = 5720 yr


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  • Calculate the age of a tooth found with 0.00132 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %. t1/2 C-14 = 5720


Ap chm hw1

AP CHM HW

  • Read: Chapter 19

  • Problems: 26 & 27

  • Page: 553


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CHM II HW

  • Read: Chapter 26

  • Problems: 53 & 54

  • Page: 1037


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  • Calculate the age of a bone found with 0.000300 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %. t1/2 C-14 = 5720


Drill3

Drill:

  • A fossil contained 3.125% of its original carbon-14. Determine its age.

  • t1/2 for C-14 = 5720 yrs


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Mass-Energy Relations

  • DE = Dmc2


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Nuclear Fact

  • The mass of any nuclei is different than the sum of the masses of its protons & neutrons


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Nuclear Fact

  • The energy corresponding to the mass difference can be solved using:

  • DE = Dmc2


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Binding Energy

  • The energy that holds a nucleus together corresponds to Dm of nucleus


Drill

In an atomic bomb, 40.00 kg of U-235 (235.401) is split into Ba-143 (143.223) + Kr-89 (89.335) + 2 neutrons (1.014). A) Calculate the energy released. B) Calculate the wavelength of the g ray


Drill

Drill: Show neutron bombardment of Ra-223 followed by 3 alpha emissions


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Drill: Show the intermediates and the final isotope of alpha bombardment of Xe-136 followed by two separate beta emissions.


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