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Drill:. Calculate the solubility of MgF 2 in 0.10 M KF. K sp MgF 2 = 6.4 x 10 -9. Drill: Calculate the volume of Cl 2 formed at 27 o C under 75 kPa when xs molten NaCl is electrolyzed with 96.5 mA for 5.0 mins. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry.

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drill
Drill:
  • Calculate the solubility of MgF2 in 0.10 M KF.
  • KspMgF2 = 6.4 x 10-9
slide2

Drill: Calculate the volume of Cl2 formed at 27oC under 75 kPa when xs molten NaCl is electrolyzed with 96.5 mA for 5.0 mins.

slide4

Nuclear Chemistry

  • The study of reactions that take place in the nuclei of atoms
slide5

Chemical Reactions

  • In normal chemical reactions, only the electrons are involved
radioactive nuclei
Radioactive Nuclei
  • A nucleus that spontaneously decomposes
isotopes
Isotopes
  • Elements with the same atomic number, but different mass number
slide8

Isotopes

  • Elements with = numbers of protons, but  numbers of neutrons
isotopes1
Isotopes
  • All elements have at least one radioactive isotope
slide10

Radiation

  • The emission of particles & rays from spontaneously decomposing nuclei
slide11

Modes of Decay

  • Alpha emission
  • Beta emission
  • Gamma emission
  • Positron emission
  • K-electron capture
slide12

Alpha Particle (a)

  • Helium nucleus
  • 2 protons & 2 neutrons
  • mass = 4 amu
  • charge = +2
  • Penetration power: small
slide13

Beta Particle (b)

  • High speed electron
  • 1 electron
  • mass = 1/1836 amu
  • charge = -1
  • Penetration power: medium
slide14

Gamma Ray (g)

  • High energy photon
  • Electromagnetic wave
  • mass = 0
  • charge = 0
  • Penetration power: great
slide15

Positron (p)

  • Positive electron
  • 1 positive electron
  • mass = 1/1836 amu
  • charge = +1
  • Penetration power: medium
slide16

K-capture

  • The capture of an inner level e- by the nucleus
  • 1 electron
  • mass = 1/1836 amu
  • charge = -1
slide17

Nuclear Symbol

  • Alpha: 24Heor24a
  • Beta: -10eor –10b
  • Gamma: 0 0
  • Positron: +10e
  • K-electron: -10e
slide18

Fission

  • The splitting of a nucleus into smaller nuclei involving the release of energy
drill1
Drill:
  • Name five types of radiation
slide20

Drill:

  • Name 3 common types of radiation
slide21

Fusion

  • The combining of smaller nuclei into a larger one involving the release of energy
slide22

Transmutation Rxns

  • Nuclear reactions in which one element is changed into another
slide23

Transmutation Rxns

  • Reactions in which the nucleus of an atom is changed
slide24

Transmutation Rxns

  • Both fission & fusion are examples of transmutation rxns
slide25

Transmutation Rxns

  • Can occur through emission of or bombardment by radioactive particles
slide26

Transmutation Rxns

  • b emission of Pm-142
  • a bombardment of Th-231
ap chm hw
AP CHM HW
  • Read: Chapter 19
  • Problems: 5 & 7
  • Page: 552
slide28

CHM II HW

  • Read: Chapter 26
  • Problems: 31 & 35
  • Page: 1036
slide29

Transmutation Rxns

  • a emission ofU-238 followed by two separate b emissions:
slide30

Transmutation Rxns

  • a bombardment ofTh-235 followed by two separate b emission:
slide31

Drill: Predict Prod

  • Neutron absorption by U-238 followed by two separate b emission:
slide32

Drill: Predict Products

  • a emission of O-18 followed by a
  • b emission:
slide33

Predict Products

  • K-capture by V-45 followed by neutron emission then a emission
slide34

Predict Products

  • b absorption by V-45 followed by neutron emission then a emission
slide35

Decay Rate

  • The rate at which radioactive nuclei break down
slide36

Half-Life

  • The time it takes for 50 % of the radioactive nuclei to decompose
slide38

Decay Rate

  • Rate = kDX/Dt
  • ln(Xi/Xf) = kt1/2
  • k = 0.693/t1/2
  • t1/2 = half-life
drill2
Drill:

Predict the products in each step when

Boron-12 goes through a bombardment followed by b emission.

slide40

1st Order Age Dating Formula

  • ln(Xi/Xf)t1/2
  • 0.693

t =

slide41

Calculate the age of a skeleton found with 0.125 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %.

  • t1/2 C-14 = 5720 yr
slide42

Calculate the age of a tooth found with 0.00132 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %. t1/2 C-14 = 5720

ap chm hw1
AP CHM HW
  • Read: Chapter 19
  • Problems: 26 & 27
  • Page: 553
slide44

CHM II HW

  • Read: Chapter 26
  • Problems: 53 & 54
  • Page: 1037
slide45

Calculate the age of a bone found with 0.000300 % C-14 when atmospheric C-14 = 1.00 %. t1/2 C-14 = 5720

drill3
Drill:
  • A fossil contained 3.125% of its original carbon-14. Determine its age.
  • t1/2 for C-14 = 5720 yrs
slide48

Nuclear Fact

  • The mass of any nuclei is different than the sum of the masses of its protons & neutrons
slide49

Nuclear Fact

  • The energy corresponding to the mass difference can be solved using:
  • DE = Dmc2
slide50

Binding Energy

  • The energy that holds a nucleus together corresponds to Dm of nucleus
slide51

In an atomic bomb, 40.00 kg of U-235 (235.401) is split into Ba-143 (143.223) + Kr-89 (89.335) + 2 neutrons (1.014). A) Calculate the energy released. B) Calculate the wavelength of the g ray

slide53
Drill: Show the intermediates and the final isotope of alpha bombardment of Xe-136 followed by two separate beta emissions.
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