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Deforming the earth’s crust

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Chapter 7 Section 4. Deforming the earth’s crust. The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress. Deformation. compression. tension. Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object. Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.

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2 types of stress deform rocks
compression

tension

  • Stress that occurs when forces act to squeeze an object
  • Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
2 types of stress deform rocks
3 types of folding

Anticline- upward arching folds

Syncline- downward trough like folds

Monocline- both ends are horizontal but the middle is bent

3 types of folding

2 most common types

faulting
A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another

You can tell the kind of fault it is by order of sedimentary rock layers.

Faulting
2 major types of faults
Normal Faults

Reverse faults

  • When it moves it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall
  • Usually occurs when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls rocks apart
  • Causes hanging wall to move up relative to footwall
  • Usually happen when tectonic forces cause compression that pushes rocks together
2 major types of faults
plate tectonics mountain building
Plate tectonics & mountain building
  • Uplift
    • Rising of regions of Earth’s crust to higher elevations
  • Subsidence
    • Sinking of regions of Earth’s crust to lower elevations
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