Chapter 19
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Chapter 19. Overview of the Skeleton. The skeletal system includes. Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect. Functions of the skeletal system. Support Storage of minerals and lipids Blood cell production Protection Leverage.

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Chapter 19

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Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Overview of the Skeleton


The skeletal system includes

The skeletal system includes

  • Bones of the skeleton

  • Cartilages, ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect


Functions of the skeletal system

Functions of the skeletal system

  • Support

  • Storage of minerals and lipids

  • Blood cell production

  • Protection

  • Leverage


Subdivisions of the skeleton

Subdivisions of the skeleton

  • Axial

    • Lies around the body’s center of gravity

  • Appendicular

    • Limbs


Bone structure two types of bone

Bone structure = two types of bone

  • Compact bone (dense)

  • Spongy bone (cancellous)

    • trabecula


Classification of bones

Classification of bones

  • By the shape

    • Long

    • Flat

    • Short

    • Irregular

    • Sesamoid

    • Sutural


Classification of bones1

Classification of bones


Bone markings surface features

Bone Markings (Surface Features)


Bone markings

Bone markings

  • Projection that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment:

    • Tubercle (tubercle of the rib)

    • Tuberosity (tibialtuberosity)

    • Trochanter (femur)

    • Epicondyle (medial epicondyle-femur)

    • Line (line aspera-femur)

    • Crest (pubic crest)

    • Process (spinous process)

    • Spine (ischial spine)


Bone markings1

Bone markings

  • Projections that help to form joints:

    • Head (femur)

    • Facet (costal facet)

    • Condyle (femur)

    • Ramus (mandible)


Bone markings2

Bone markings

  • Cavities:

    • Sinus (maxillary)


Bone markings3

Bone markings

  • Depressions and openings for blood vessels and nerves to pass:

    • Foramen (ovale)

    • Meatus (acoustic meatus)

    • Fissure (orbital)

    • Fossa (posterior cranial fossa)


A typical long bone includes

A typical long bone includes

  • Diaphysis

    • Periosteum

    • Perforating fibers (Sharpey’s)

    • Endosteum

  • Epiphyses

    • Epiphysial plate

    • Epiphysial line


A typical long bone includes1

A typical long bone includes

  • Articular cartilage

  • Marrow cavity

    • Filled with red or yellow marrow


Bone structure

Bone Structure


Bone growth at an epiphyseal cartilage

Bone Growth at an Epiphyseal Cartilage


Bone histology

Bone Histology


The histology of compact bone

The Histology of Compact Bone


Compact bone

Compact bone

  • Basic unit of compact bone is an osteon

    • Osteocytes

    • Lacunae

    • Perforating canals (Volkmann’s)

    • Central canal


Compact bone1

Compact bone

  • Canaliculi

  • Lamella

    • Circumferential

    • Interstitial

    • Concentric


The structure of osseous tissue

The Structure of Osseous Tissue


Cartilages of the skeleton

Cartilages of the skeleton

  • Articular cartilages

    • Cover movable joints

  • Costal cartilages

    • Connects ribs to sternum

  • Laryngeal cartilage

  • Nasal cartilage

  • Tracheal and bronchial cartilages

  • Intervertebral discs


Cartilages of the skeleton1

Cartilages of the skeleton

  • Classification of cartilages

    • Hyaline

    • Elastic

      • Pina, Epiglotis

    • Fibrocartilage

      • Pubis, intervertebral discs, meniscus


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