Letter from Birmingham Jail. Who is the speaker? Who is the audience?. Example 1. In “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Martin Luther King Jr. says, “I gradually gained a bit of satisfaction from being considered an extremist. Was not Paul an extremist for the gospel of Jesus Christ? ”.
•Ad hominem (literally, “to the man”): Instead of finding fault with the argument, one finds fault with the arguer, substituting irrelevant assertions about the person’s character for an analysis of the argument itself.
•Begging the question: Assuming a premise when trying to prove a conclusion. For example, “My client would not steal because he is an honest man.”
•Either/or reasoning: Reasoning based on either/or situations. For example, “Either you’re pro-choice or you’re against the advancement of women in American society.”
•Equivocation: Using the same term with two or more meanings or referents; ambiguity. For example, “All banks are beside rivers. Therefore, the financial institution where I deposit my money is beside a river”
•Faulty analogy: Using an overextended metaphor that may concentrate on irrelevant, inconsequential similarities between two situations. For example, “Where there is smoke, there is fire.”
•Faulty causality: Assuming that because one incident follows another, the first necessarily causes the second. For example, “I got an A on my paper because I was nice to the teacher.”
•Faulty generalizations: Jumping to a conclusion from inadequate evidence. For example, “I got a C on my English paper. I suck at English.”