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Unit 40 Dementia care

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Unit 40 Dementia care. You have 10 seconds to name…. 5 European capital cities. What is Dementia?. Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. Memory loss is an example. Alzheimer\'s is the most common type of dementia.

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You have 10 seconds to name…

5 European

capital cities

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What is Dementia?

Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. Memory loss is an example. Alzheimer\'s is the most common type of dementia.

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Dementia is not a specific disease. It\'s an overall term that describes a wide range of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person\'s ability to perform everyday activities.

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About 750,000 people in the UK have dementia – and this number is expected to double in the next thirty years.

  • The Government is committed to improving the care and experience of people with dementia and their carers by transforming dementia services to achieve better awareness, early diagnosis and high quality treatment.
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Group Task

  • Name 5 signs or symptoms of dementia?
symptoms and signs of dementia
Symptoms and signs of dementia
  • While symptoms of dementia can vary greatly, at least two of the following core mental functions must be significantly impaired to be considered dementia:
  • Memory loss
  • Communication and language
  • Ability to focus and pay attention
  • Reasoning and judgment
  • Visual perception
causes
Causes
  • Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behaviour and feelings can be affected.
  • The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions (for example, memory, judgment and movement). When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.
diagnosis of dementia
Diagnosis of dementia
  • There is no one test to determine if someone has dementia. Doctors diagnose Alzheimer\'s and other types of dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day function and behavior associated with each type.
  • Mini Mental test
types of dementia
Types of Dementia
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Most common type of dementia; accounts for an estimated 60 to 80 percent of cases.
  • Symptoms: Difficulty remembering names and recent events is often an early clinical symptom; apathy and depression are also often early symptoms.
vascular dementia
Vascular Dementia
  • Previously known as multi-infarct or post-stroke dementia, vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer\'s disease.
  • Symptoms: Impaired judgment or ability to plan steps needed to complete a task is more likely to be the initial symptom, as opposed to the memory loss often associated with the initial symptoms of Alzheimer\'s. Occurs because of brain injuries such as microscopic bleeding and blood vessel blockage.
dementia with lewys bodies
Dementia with Lewys Bodies
  • Symptoms: People with dementia with Lewy bodies often have memory loss and thinking problems common in Alzheimer\'s, but are more likely than people with Alzheimer\'s to have initial or early symptoms such as sleep disturbances, well-formed visual hallucinations, and muscle rigidity or other parkinsonian movement features.
creutzeldt jakob disease
Creutzeldt-Jakob Disease
  • CJD is the most common human form of a group of rare, fatal brain disorders affecting people and certain other mammals. Variant CJD (“mad cow disease”) occurs in cattle, and has been transmitted to people under certain circumstances.
  • Symptoms: Rapidly fatal disorder that impairs memory and coordination and causes behaviour changes.
huntington s disease
Huntington’s Disease
  • Huntington’s disease is a progressive brain disorder caused by a single defective gene on chromosome 4.
  • Symptoms: Include abnormal involuntary movements, a severe decline in thinking and reasoning skills, and irritability, depression and other mood changes.
pick s disease
Pick’s Disease
  • Pick\'s disease is a relatively rare form of dementia that causes a slow shrinking of brain cells due to excess protein build-up. Patients with Pick’s initially exhibit marked personality and behavioural changes, and then a decline in the ability to speak coherently.
  • Symptoms
  • Impulsivity and poor judgment
  • Extreme restlessness (early stages)
  • Overeating or drinking to excess (when this was not previously a problem)
  • Lack of attention to personal hygiene
recap
Recap
  • Name the 5 different types of Dementia?
  • Name 5 signs and symptoms of Dementia
  • Name 1 cause of Dementia
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