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Ancient Stuff. 8000 BCE to 600 CE. The Big Picture. What are civilizations all about? What makes a civilization? Political, economic, religion Social levels Occupations Use of technology Art Communication Transportation How does change occur within a society? CULTURAL DIFFUSION

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Ancient stuff

Ancient Stuff

8000 BCE to 600 CE

The big picture
The Big Picture

  • What are civilizations all about? What makes a civilization?

    • Political, economic, religion

    • Social levels

    • Occupations

    • Use of technology

    • Art

    • Communication

    • Transportation

  • How does change occur within a society?


  • How are people impacted by, and how do they impact, geography, and climate?

At the beginning there was
At the beginning there was…

  • Major changes… remember that everything is a chain reaction in history

    • one event sets up everything

  • The beginning period

    • Figuring out farming

    • What happens when there is enough to eat?

    • Developing tech and ideas to support a city

      • And takeover others

    • Rise of major world religions

    • Collapse of Classical Empires

Nomads follow the food
Nomads: Follow the food

  • Imagine early people

    • No cities

    • No farms

    • Only tried to satisfy FOOD and SHELTER needs

    • No advanced tools

    • Had to FIND shelter and had to FIND food

Foraging societies hunt and gather
Foraging Societies: Hunt and Gather

  • Foraging societies = Hunter and Gatherers

  • Life was dictated by the animals

Pastoral societies taming the animals
Pastoral Societies: Taming the animals

  • Characterized by the DOMESTICATION of animals

  • Usually found in more mountainous regions

The neolithic revolution
The Neolithic Revolution

  • “New Stone”

    • AKA Agricultural Revolution

  • 8000 BCE to 3000 BC

  • Civilizations started by water sources

  • Learn to cultivate => get to stay in one spot => => Sense of Property with ties to land => Sense of Unity => specialization of society => culture

Important consequence
Important consequence…


  • Leads to more complex societies, organized economies, governmental structures, religion

  • With IRRIGATION more land could be cultivated… leading to greater societal expansion

Impact on environment
Impact on environment

  • Changed the landscape

    • Diverted water

    • Clearing land

    • Buildings

    • Stones cut into for building materials and monuments

  • Animals used for labor… not just food and clothing

The bronze age
The Bronze age

  • The latter half of the Neolithic period

  • They had developed in the first half

    • Pottery

    • Sharpened stones

    • Plows

    • Carts

    • Sails

    • wheels

  • During the Bronze age

    • Combined copper with tin

    • Created a harder metal

Early civilizations
Early civilizations

  • 3000- 2000 BCE

  • Mesopotamia

  • Egypt

  • India

  • China


    • The city and the surrounding countryside


  • “land between the rivers”

    • Tigris and Euphrates

    • Flooding was unpredictable

      • Early settlements washed away

      • Eventually built canals and dikes

  • Encompassed multiple civilizations

    • Sumer

    • Babylon

    • Persia

  • Part of the FERTILE CRESCENT

Mesopotamia cont
Mesopotamia Cont…

  • By 3000 BCE

    • UR, Erech, Kish

      • Major City-States

Ancient sumer
Ancient SUMER

  • Developed CUNEIFORM

    • Ancient writing form

    • Scribes

      • Writer

        • Wrote laws, customs, treaties

  • Developed 12 month calendar

  • Math…60 units (as in 60 seconds)

  • Developed arches and columns

Sumerians cont
Sumerians Cont…

  • Polytheistic

    • Belief in more than one god

    • Each city has its own god and then there was a collective of gods that all cities worshipped


    • Raised temples to honor the gods

    • Disasters were due to gods being angry

  • By 1700 BCE it was no more

From sumer to babylon to nineveh to babylon
From Sumer to Babylon to Nineveh to Babylon

  • The Akkadians (city of Akkad)

    • Rose after the decline of Sumer

  • Eventually overrun by BABYLON

    • Leader: King Hammurabi

      • HAMMURABI’S CODE: first set of modern legal code

        • Distinguished between major and minor offenses

        • Applied to everyone

        • Distinguished between social classes

  • Babylon falls to the HITTITES

    • 1500 BCE


  • Hittites

    • Dominated due to use of iron weapons

  • Assyrians learn of Iron tech

    • Ninaveh (capital of Assyria)

    • Highly disciplined but cruel

    • Frequent uprisings

  • Chaldeans took over next

    • Leader: King Nebuchadnezzar

    • Rebuilt Babylon as a showplace

  • Persians then emerge and take over the Fertile crescent

Persian immersion
Persian Immersion

  • 500 BCE

  • Built roads

    • Great Royal Road

      • 1600 miles from Persian Gulf to Aegean Sea

Lydians phoenicians and hebrews oh my
Lydians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews… OH MY!

  • Lydians

    • Came up with money instead of bartering

    • Allowed more consistent pricing and a reason to save

  • Phoenicians

    • Established powerful naval city-states along the Mediteranean

    • Developed simple alphabet… leads to our modern alphabet

  • Hebrews (Jews/Judaism)

    • Monotheistic

    • Established Israel in Palestine

Hebrews cont

  • Believed they are God’s chosen people

  • Frequently invaded but maintain identity

    • Nebuchadnezzar enslaved them

    • Under Persian rule they were freed

Ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt

  • Reached peak around 1400 BCE (New Kingdom)

  • Three major Kingdoms

    • Old

    • Middle

    • New

Egyptian achievements
Egyptian Achievements

  • Before the Old Kingdom they united under King Menes

  • Rulers known as Pharoahs

    • Seen as gods

  • Constructed Obelisks and Pyramids

  • Hieroglyphics

    • System of writing in pictures

  • Reliable calendar

  • Engaged heavily in trade

You can take it with you
You can take it with you!

  • Egyptians were polytheistic

  • Belief in the afterlife

  • Believed they could take their belongings

  • Believed they could use their bodies in the afterlife…leads to MUMMIFICATION

    • Preserving dead bodies

    • Only available to the elite

Egyptian women hear them roar
Egyptian Women, Hear them ROAR!

  • Queen Hatshepsut

    • First known female ruler

    • 22 years during New Kingdom

    • Expanded trade

  • Women could

    • buy and sell property

    • Inherit property

    • Will their property

    • Dissolve marriages

  • Women were still subservient to men

    • Valued as bearers of children

    • Females not as educated as male counterparts

Ancient egypt in decline
Ancient Egypt in Decline

  • By 1100 BCE until 100 BCE

  • Conquered by both Assyrians and Persians… then the Greeks and finally the ROMANS

Indus valley cont
Indus Valley cont…

  • 2500 BCE to 1500 BCE

  • Khyber pass

    • “only” way into the Indus Valley

    • They were cut off from invaders at the beginning

  • Major cities

    • Mohenjo-Daro

    • Harrapa

      • Home to about 100,000 each

  • May have had sophisticated water systems

  • Strong Central government

Indus valley cont1
Indus Valley Cont…

  • Most likely led by a King-Priest

  • Polytheistic

  • Indus Industry was top notch

    • Used potter’s wheel

    • Grew cotton

    • Made cloth

  • Around 1900 BCE the cities started to be abandoned for unknown reasons

Arrival of the aryans
Arrival of the Aryans

  • Nomadic tribe from North of the Caucasus Mountains

Aryans cont
Aryans Cont…

  • Used horses and advanced weapons to easily defeat Indus people

  • Began to settle Indus Valley

  • Most Important fact

    • Belief system formed HINDUISM

      • Reincarnation

      • Polytheistic

      • Recorded beliefs in the VEDAS and UPANISHADS

  • Also contributed the CASTE SYSTEM

Caste system
Caste System

  • Initially Warriors/Priests/Peasants

  • Later changes to Priests (brahmans)/Warriors/Landowners-Merchants/Peasants

  • As system evolved movement between classes forbidden

    • Born into it

Early china shang on the hwang
Early China: SHANG on the HWANG

  • Shang China rose in the Hwang Ho River Valley

    • AKA Yellow River Valley

Shang cont
Shang Cont…

  • 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE

  • Like others they used agricultural surplus to build a trade center

  • Northern China

  • Military Power

    • used chariots

  • Limited contact with world

  • Believed they were the CENTER OF THE WORLD

Shang cont1
Shang Cont…

  • Called themselves “ALL UNDER HEAVEN”

  • Accomplished Bronze workers

  • Chariots and developed the spoked wheel

  • Pottery

  • Silk

  • Devised a decimal system

  • Highly accurate Calendar

Shang s family focus
Shang’s Family Focus

  • Extended family important

  • Patriarchal structure

    • Led by eldest male

  • Believed God’s controlled all aspects of people’s lives

  • Believed they could call on their dead ancestors to advocate with the Gods

    • Led to greater significance of extended family

Enter the zhou
Enter the ZHOU

  • Zhou dynasty

    • AKA Chou

    • 1100 BCE

      • Ruled for about 900 years

  • Believed in MANDATE OF HEAVEN

    • Heaven would grant power as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely

    • Similar to DIVINE RIGHT

Zhou cont
Zhou Cont…

  • Developed a feudal system

    • King ruled overall

    • Nobles given power over smaller regions

      • King protected nobles in exchange for loyalty

  • As time passes, the nobles built up power

    • Kingdoms emerge after splits

      • Some developed BUREAUCRACIES

        • Government organizing into BUREAUS

          • Specialized departments

  • ZHOU ends in 256 BCE

West africa bantu migrations and the stateless society
WEST AFRICA: BANTU migrations and the “Stateless Society”

  • Around 1500 BCE

  • Niger river and Benue River valleys migrated east and south


      • Spurred by climate change

      • Sahara desert area

  • BANTU was the family of languages


    • First city in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Not hierarchically organized

      • Collection of communities

Classical civilizations india
Classical Civilizations: India Society”

  • Mauryan Empire

    • 321 BCE to 180 BCE

  • Gupta Dynasty

    • 320 to 550 CE

Mauryan empire
Mauryan Empire Society”

  • 321 BCE to 180 BCE

  • Aryan Culture spread (Introduced Hinduism and caste system)

  • Founded by Chadragupta Maurya

    • Unified the smaller Aryan kingdoms

    • Grandfather to Ashoka Maurya

  • Ashoka was its greatest leader

    • Rock and Pillar Edicts

      • Reminded people to live generous and righteous lives

      • Converted to Buddhism and spread the religion

Mauryan empire cont
Mauryan Empire cont… Society”

  • Became powerful through trade

    • Silk, cotton, elephants

    • To Mesopotamia and eastern Roman empire

  • Had a powerful military

    • Ashoka converted to Buddhism after a violent and bloody battle over the Kalinga

    • He then started preaching nonviolence and moderation

Gupta dynasty
Gupta Dynasty Society”

  • 320 – 550 CE

  • Major Leader: Chandra Gupta

    • Led the “golden age”

      • Peaceful time

      • Advances in art and science

        • Developed Pi and concept of zero

        • Decimal system of 1-9

          • Diffused to Arabs and became known as arabic numerals

  • Hinduism came back along with caste system

    • Women lost rights

  • Collapsed after White Hun invasion in 550

Classical civilizations china
Classical Civilizations: China Society”

  • Qin Dynasty

    • 221 to 209 BCE

  • Han Dynasty

    • 200 BCE to 200 CE

Qin dynasty in china
Qin Dynasty in China Society”

  • 221 to 209 BCE

    • Extremely short

    • Buuuuuuut Important

  • Connected fortification walls and created the GREAT WALL OF CHINA

  • Leader: Qin Shi Huang Di

  • Standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, and writing

  • Did not tolerate dissent… burned books and killed dissenters

Qin cont
Qin Cont… Society”

  • Patriarchal


    • Believed in strong government

  • After emperor’s death peasants revolted and led to the HAN DYNASTY

Han dynasty in china
Han Dynasty in China Society”

  • 200 BCE to 200 CE

  • The Huns invaded China and Eastern Europe

  • Major leader: WU TI

  • Trade thrived along the Silk Road


    • Based on merit not who you knew

    • Based on teachings of Confucius

    • Testing lasted several days

    • Open to all but only the wealthy could afford to prepare for it

Han dynasty cont
Han Dynasty cont… Society”

  • Invented paper, accurate sundials, and calendars

  • Broadened use of metals

Classical civilizations greece
Classical Civilizations: Greece Society”

  • Mountainous area

    • Not good for agriculture

  • Good harbors and mild weather

  • Eventually replaced bartering with monetary system… developed by who?

  • Because of this ATHENS emerges as a wealthy city

  • Because land was scarce they developed a strong military to expand their territory

Greece cont
Greece cont… Society”

  • Polis

    • AKA city-state

    • Shared culture and identity

    • Each was independent

      • Led to conflict

  • Two main city-states

    • ATHENS

      • More culturally centered

    • SPARTA

      • More militarily centered

      • Women had more rights than in Athens

Greece cont1
Greece cont… Society”

  • Polis

    • Composed three groups

      • Citizens (adult males) in business/commerce

      • Free people with no political rights

      • Non-citizens (slaves with no rights… about 1/3rd)

  • Among Citizens civic decisions were debated and all citizens participated (only males)


Greece cont2
Greece cont… Society”

  • Slavery led to Democracy

    • Slave labor led to extra free time

    • Slaves could buy their freedom

Greek mythology
Greek Mythology Society”

  • Polytheistic

    • Zeus

    • Aphrodite

  • Gods possessed human failings

    • Got angry

    • Got drunk

    • Took sides

    • Had petty arguments

War with persia the greeks hold on
War with Persia… The Greeks hold on Society”


    • United Greek city-states against their mutual enemy… Persia

    • Much of Athens was destroyed

    • Two major victories

      • Marathon and Salamis

  • After war they enter the “Golden Age of Pericles”

Golden age of pericles
Golden Age of Pericles Society”

  • Leader: Pericles (of Athens)

  • Philosophy and the arts flourished

  • Hoplites and Phalynx established

  • Established the DELIAN LEAGUE

    • An alliance against aggression from common enemies

    • Athens took the money

      • Spent on arts and navy

In philosophy
In Philosophy… Society”


  • Believed truth could be discerned through rational thought and deliberate observation

  • Although not always accurate, the process they went through was revolutionary

Other advances during the golden age
Other advances during the Golden Age… Society”

  • Greek architecture

    • Ionic, Dorian, Corinthian columns

  • Math and Science flourished

    • Archimedes, Hippocrates, Euclid, Pythagoras

  • But culture did exist before the Golden Age

    • Homer

      • Wrote the Illiad and The Odessey

Trouble for athens
Trouble for Athens Society”

  • Others aligned with Sparta to form the Peloponnesian League

  • Athens became fearful of Sparta and vice versa

  • Trade disputes lead to PELOPONNESIAN WAR

    • 431 BCE

  • Athens hid behind its great walls since it couldn’t get to Sparta

    • Sparta was inland…Athens had only a good Navy

  • Plan worked except for a plague and a defeat of their navy at Syracuse

Weakened by war
Weakened by War Society”

  • Sparta did not destroy Athens since it respected them

  • Both weakened

  • Conquered by the Macedonians

    • Leader: Phillip of Macedon

      • 359 BCE to 336 BCE

        • Also respected the Greek culture

  • Phillip’s son becomes king


      • Taught by Aristotle

Alexander the great
Alexander the Great Society”

  • Conquered the Persian Empire

  • Creates largest Empire of the time

    • Divided into three empires

  • Adopted Greek customs then Culturally Diffused the ideas


    • The culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece

    • Much of the World had uniform beliefs

Death of alexander
Death of Alexander Society”

  • Died at 33 years old

  • Macedonian empire collapses afterwards

  • Rome emerges

Classical civilizations rome1
Classical Civilizations: ROME Society”

  • 509 BCE to 476 CE

  • Good position geographically

    • Alps to the north provided protection

    • Protected from large scale naval invasion

    • Crossroads/easy access to many places

  • Polytheistic

    • Many gods were Greek but renamed to suit culture

Social structure in rome
Social Structure in Rome Society”

  • PATRICIANS (land owners) vs. PLEBEIANS (the others) vs. Slaves

  • Patriarchal Society

  • Slavery was important

    • 1/3 of pop

    • Came from conquered territories


    • Senate and Assembly

    • Two Consuls elected annually

  • Much more stable since you don’t have to vote on everything

  • Code of Laws

    • Twelve Tables of Rome

      • Innocent until proven guilty

Roman military domination
Roman Military Domination Society”

  • Carthage was first major enemy (N. Africa)


  • First Punic War

    • 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    • Rome Won

  • Second Punic War

    • 218 BCE

    • HANNIBAL, Carthaginian General

      • Invaded much of the Roman Empire

      • Had to return home to defend Carthage and lost their gains

Roman military cont
Roman Military Cont… Society”

  • Third Punic War

    • Rome started it

    • Invaded Carthage… burned it to the ground

  • Rome also faught

    • Defeating the Macedonians

    • Gauls in the north

    • Spaniards to the west

  • With all this conquering they

    • Built road networks, aqueducts, and grew their Navy

Collapse of the republic and rise of imperialism
Collapse of the Republic and Rise of Imperialism Society”

  • Problems in Rome

    • Large landowners started using more slaves

      • Displaced small farmers… they move to cities… causes overcrowding with not enough jobs

    • Roman currency devalued

    • Political leaders began fighting

      • Power of Senate weakens… leads to


          • Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar

First triumverate
First Triumverate Society”

  • Caesar given power over Gaul (France)

    • Never invaded Germany

  • Caesar’s followers pushed out the other two

    • Becomes Emperor for life

    • Angry senators assassinate him in 44 BCE

  • Second Triumverate emerges

    • Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus

      • Octavius rose to power

        • Becomes “Augustus Caesar”


Augustus caesar
Augustus Caesar Society”

  • Rome becomes the capital of the Western World

  • 200 years of peace

    • PAX ROMANA (Roman Peace)

  • Growth of arts and sciences

    • Literature

      • Virgil’s Aeneid

    • Architecture

      • Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum

Religious diversity new chiefs of beliefs
Religious Diversity: New Chiefs of Beliefs Society”

  • Early on it was Paganism

    • Made sacrifices to Roman Gods

    • Had to worship them in order to show loyalty

  • Christianity then emerges

    • Grew out of Judaism

    • Romans initially OK with it… then see it as a threat

  • Roman Emperor NERO persecuted Christians

  • Emperor Constantine ends persecution in 313 CE with the EDICT OF MILAN

    • 391 CE Christianity becomes official religion

Late classical period
Late Classical Period Move

  • 200-600 CE

  • Fall of

    • Han China

    • Gupta Empire

    • Western Roman Empire

    • Mayan

Collapse of the han
Collapse of the Han Move

  • Han dynasty interupted by WANG MANG

    • Seized throne by using the MANDATE OF HEAVEN argument

    • Established the XIN DYNASTY (9-23 CE)

      • Reforms were unsuccessful… led to revolts

      • Han take control after revolts but were never as powerful… fully lose control in 220 CE

        • China divides into regional kingdoms

Collapse of the gupta empire
Collapse of the Gupta Empire Move

  • INVADED by the HUNS (Not Attila’s forces, they were attacking Europe)… the white huns

    • Held them off for a little while but were weakened

    • Hinduism and the caste system remained intact but the empire did not

Collapse of the western portion of the roman empire
Collapse of the WESTERN Portion of the Roman Empire Move

  • Fell due to internal decay, external pressure (Attila and other groups)

  • Empire was just too large to be supported

  • Series of bad leaders

  • Epidemics

Roman s cont
Roman’s cont. Move

  • Diocletian… 284 CE takes over and divides the Empire into halves ruled by co-emperors

  • Civil war erupts after his retirement

  • CONSTANTINE comes to power in 322 CE

    • Builds Constantinople

      • Becomes the new capital of a united Rome after he tries to take back the lost lands

    • He dies and the Empire divides again

      • Eastern half thrives (becomes BYZANTINE EMPIRE)… Western half dies

        • Germanic Tribes along borders (VISIGOTHS)

          • Were Roman

        • Visigoths pushed back by Attila and the Huns… then retreat and sack Rome

Trade and cultural diffusion
Trade and Cultural Diffusion Move

  • Major Trade routes emerge


      • China to Roman Empire

      • Pastoral communities feed/trade/shelter the traders

  • Disease travels the same routes

  • Religion spreads along the same routes

Outline of things to know
Outline of things to know Move

  • Polytheism

  • Confuscianism

  • Daoism

  • Legalism

  • Hinduism

  • Buddhism

  • Judaism

  • Christianity

Polytheism Move

  • Belief in more than one god

  • Practiced by almost all except the Hebrews

Confucianism Move

  • 400 BCE – present

  • China

  • Who was Confucius?

    • Born an aristocrat

    • His thinking was generally at odds with state policy

    • Attracted followers… they wrote his beliefs in the ANALECTS


Confucius cont
Confucius cont… Move

  • Focus on 5 relationships and their obligations/responsibilities

    • Ruler and Subject

    • Parent and Child

    • Husband and Wife

    • Older Brother and Younger Brother

    • Friend and Friend

Confucius cont1
Confucius cont… Move

  • Ren- sense of kindness

  • Li- sense of respect


    • Respect for family obligations

  • Confucianism places the emphasis on the Individual to act accordingly NOT the government mandating it

Daoism Move

  • 500 BCE and onward

  • China

  • AKA Taoism

  • Lao-Tzu

    • Chinese philosopher

    • The DAO or the WAY is passive… it accomplishes everything but does nothing

      • Ex. The opening in a pot does nothing but without it there would be no pot

    • You just let things happen… simple life… harmony with nature

Legalism Move

  • Qin Dynasty (221-209 BCE)

  • China

  • Maintained that peace and order were achieved through a centralized, tightly governed state

  • Didn’t trust human nature… needed tough laws

    • Caused widespread dissent

Hinduism Move

  • Indian subcontinent

  • Believe in one supreme force… the BRAHMA… the creator

  • Hindu gods are manifestations of Brahma

    • Vishnu… the preserver


  • Goal: to merge with Brahma

    • Cannot be accomplished in one lifetime

Hinduism cont
Hinduism cont… Move

  • Must follow DHARMA to move up

    • The rules and obligations of the caste your born into

    • Determines how you live your next life

  • Life, death, rebirth continues until MOKSHA

    • Release of the soul to Brahma


    • Sources of prayers, verses, and origins of the universe

Buddhism Move

  • India, China, SE Asia

  • Founded: Siddhartha Gautauma

    • 563 BCE to 483 BCE

    • Rejected his wealth (was a prince)

    • Searched for meaning of human suffering

    • Meditated under a bodhi tree and reached enlightenment or Buddha status

Buddhism cont
Buddhism cont… Move

  • No supreme being in Buddhism

  • Follow the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS

    • All life is suffering

    • Suffering is caused by desire

    • One can be freed of this desire

    • One is freed by following the EIGHTFOLD PATH

      • Following the path moves you towards NIRVANA

        • State of perfect harmony

Judaism Move

  • Hebrews

  • Monotheistic

  • Believes God holds them as his select people

  • Believe if they worshipped him, he would preserve them for all time

  • Believed in free will and the task of humans is to honor and serve God by following the TORAH