Download

Historical Views of Child Psychopathology






Advertisement
/ 25 []
Download Presentation
Comments
yehudah
From:
|  
(126) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 100 | Added: 16-03-2012
Rate Presentation: 0 1
Description:
Historical Views of Child Psychopathology. The Emergence of Social Conscience Historically children often ignored or subjected to harsh treatment John Locke (17thC) Jean-Marc Itard (19thC) – treat children with kindness. Historical Views (cont.).
Historical Views of Child Psychopathology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Slide 1

Historical Views of Child Psychopathology

  • The Emergence of Social Conscience

    • Historically children often ignored or subjected to harsh treatment

    • John Locke (17thC)

    • Jean-Marc Itard (19thC) – treat children with kindness

Slide 2

Historical Views (cont.)

  • Early Psychological Attributions (for adults, mostly)

    • emerged in early 1900’s

    • psychoanalytic theory

    • behaviorism laid foundation for studying conditioning and elimination of children’s fears

Slide 3

Historical Views of Child Psychopathology

  • Child psychopathology generally ignored

    • Insanity

    • DSM

      • 1980 version of DSM included a child section

Slide 4

Reasons why ignored

  • Psychoanalytic theory

  • Behavior theory

Slide 5

Historical Views (cont.)

  • Evolving Forms of Treatment based in historical context

    • institutionalized

    • foster families and group homes

    • behavior therapy

Slide 6

Evidence for change in perspective on children’s problems

  • Child-focused journals

  • Divisions of APA

  • Child abuse laws enacted

  • IDEA

Slide 7

Change in perspective (cont.)

  • Surgeon General’s report (2001)

    • 1 in 10 has severe mental or behavior problem

    • Only 2 of 10 with problems get help

Slide 8

Surgeon General’s goals

  • Promote public awareness

  • Develop scientifically proven treatments

  • Improve assessment methods

  • Eliminate ethnic/SES disparities in services

Slide 9

Surgeon General’s goals

  • Train frontline providers

  • Monitor access to mental health services

  • Improve infrastructure of services

  • Increase access to mental health services

Slide 10

Reasons why child psychopathology is now receiving more attention

  • Problems are common

  • Lifelong consequences

  • Predict adult disorders

  • Few children receive necessary help

  • Develop early intervention programs

  • Legal mandates

Slide 11

Defining Psychological Disorders

  • Determining what is normal and abnormal is an arbitrary process

  • Traditionally defined as a pattern of behavioral, cognitive, or physical symptoms, that is associated with one or more of:

    • distress

    • disability

    • increased risk for further suffering or harm

Slide 12

Defining Psychological Disorders (cont.)

  • Many childhood problems best depicted in terms of relationships

  • Labels describe behavior, not the child

  • Problems may be the result of children’s attempts to adapt to abnormal or unusual circumstances

  • Need to consider age/developmental level

Slide 13

Developmental Pathways

  • Refers to the sequence and timing of behaviors, and the relationship between them over time

  • Two types of developmental pathways:

    • multifinality: similar early experiences lead to different outcomes

    • equifinality: different early experiences lead to a similar outcome

Slide 14

Developmental Pathways (cont.)

Figure 1.1 (a) Multifinality: Similar early experiences lead to different outcomes; (b) Equifinality: Different factors lead to a similar outcome

Slide 15

Developmental Pathways (cont.)

  • With abnormal child psychology, must keep in mind:

    • there are many contributors to disordered outcomes in each child

    • contributors vary among children who have the disorder

    • children express features of their disturbances in different ways

    • pathways leading to particular disorders are numerous and interactive

Slide 16

Issues unique to child psychopathology

  • Referral process

  • Greist et al.: why do parents bring their children in to clinics?

    • Predicted mother’s ratings of their children

    • Home observation for objective ratings

    • Got ratings of mom’s mood/depression

Slide 17

Referral process cont.

  • Webster-stratton (1988)

    • Questions of interest

    • Method

    • Results

    • implications

Slide 18

Temperament & reciprocal relationships

  • Innate biological factors which influence behavior

    • “easy” temperament

    • “difficult” temperament

      • Easiness to soothe

      • Activity

      • Sociability

  • Parent-child relationships are reciprocal

Slide 19

Reciprocal relationships

  • Pelham et al. (1997)

    • Questions of interest

    • Method

    • Results

    • implications

Slide 20

What Affects Rates and Expression of Mental Disorders?

  • Poverty and Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    • about 1 in 6 children in North America live in poverty

    • poverty is associated with greater rates of learning impairments and academic problems, conduct problems, chronic illness, hyperactivity, and emotional disorders

Slide 21

Rates and Expression (cont.)

  • Sex Differences

    • sex differences appear negligible in children under age 3, but increase with age

    • boys > girls in early/middle childhood; girls > during adolescence

Slide 22

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.3 Normal developmental trajectories of Externalizing problems (top graph) an Internalizing problems (bottom graph) from the Child Behavior Checklist. Ages are shown on the x axis. The y axis represents the raw scores (higher score means more problems). Source: Bongers, Koot, van der Ende, & Verhulst, 2003.

Slide 23

Rates and Expression (cont.)

  • Ethnicity

    • minority children over-represented

    • once other effects (SES, gender, age, referral status) are controlled for, very few differences emerge in relation to race or ethnicity

    • minority children face multiple disadvantages

Slide 24

Rates and Expression (cont.)

  • Ethnicity (cont.)

    • Research has often ignored cultural factors

Slide 25

Rates and Expression (cont.)

  • Culture

    • contributes to development and expression of disorders

    • some underlying processes are similar across diverse cultures


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro