what do we know about ky numbers
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
What do we know about KY numbers?

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

What do we know about KY numbers? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 175 Views
  • Uploaded on

What do we know about KY numbers?. 1997 report from 37 Public Health Clinics 1/3 reported drinking in past month over 40% reported ever using illicit drugs with higher numbers for current use in 11 - 17 year olds.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' What do we know about KY numbers?' - yehuda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
what do we know about ky numbers
What do we know about KY numbers?
  • 1997 report from 37 Public Health Clinics
    • 1/3 reported drinking in past month
    • over 40% reported ever using illicit drugs with higher numbers for current use in 11 - 17 year olds
fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome is among the most commonly known causes of mental retardation and is a major public health problem.

It is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation!

historical view of alcohol as a teratogen1
Foolish, drunken, or harebrain women most often bring forth children like unto themselves Aristotle in Problemata

Behold, thou shalt conceive and bear a son: And now, drink no wine or strong drink.

Judges 13:7

Historical view of alcohol as a teratogen

Rosett, 1984

fas only the tip of the iceberg fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
FAS – Only the tip of the icebergFetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Fetal alcohol effects
  • Clinical suspect but appear normal
  • Normal, but never reach their potential

Adapted from Streissguth

incidence and prevalence of fas and other effects
Incidence and Prevalence of FAS and other effects
  • FAS - .5 to 3 cases/1000 live births
    • (U.S. 2 - 12,000 FAS births/year)
      • variations in pockets/locations
    • International Studies ongoing in Moscow, S. Africa
  • Affected but not full blown FAS - 3-6 cases /1000 live births
change in brain size
Change in brain size

Cerebrum

Cerebellum

100

PEA

95

FAS

90

***

p

<

0.001

**

p

< 0.010

85

80

75

Cerebrum

Cerebellum

Corpus Callosum

Mattson et al., 1994

general intellectual performance

115

100

85

70

55

40

General Intellectual Performance

NC

PEA

*

*

*

*

FAS

*

**

Standard score

FSIQ

VIQ

PIQ

IQ scale

Mattson, S.N., 1997.

executive functioning deficits
Executive functioning deficits

6

NC

PEA

4

FAS

Rule Violations

P<0.001

2

1

2

0

Group

3

Move only one piece at a time using one hand and never place a big piece on top of a little piece

1

3

2

Starting position

Ending position

Mattson, et al., 1999

behavioral characteristics associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Behavioral characteristics associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
  • hyperactivity, response inhibition deficits, attentional problems, motor coordination deficits, executive function (planning) problems,
secondary disabilities
Secondary Disabilities

Individuals with FAS/FAE have a range of secondary

disabilities – disabilities that the individual is not born with, and which could be ameliorated withappropriate interventions.

Streissguth, et al., 1996

animal models example of the comparability of effects
Growth retardation

Facial characteristics

Heart, skeletal defects

Microcephaly

Reductions in basal ganglia and cerebellar volumes

Callosal anomalies

Hyperactivity, attentional problems

Inhibitory deficits

Impaired learning

Perseveration errors

Feeding difficulties

Gait anomalies

Hearing anomalies

Animal models – Example of the comparability of effects

Driscoll, et al., 1990; Samson, 1986;

smoking and nicotine during pregnancy
Smoking and nicotine during pregnancy
  • 25-35% of women smoke cigarettes during pregnancy although clearly there are regional differences
  • Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important preventable risk factors for SGA pregnancies, as well possibly for late fetal death
slide19

Cigarette smoke contains more than 2000 pharmacologically active substances including carbon monoxide (which could lead to fetal hypoxia), cyanide, nitrous oxide

Increased obstetric complications such as spontaneous abortion

Dose-dependent reductions in birthweight, possible increased risk of SIDS

Passive smoking

what about nicotine
What about nicotine?
  • animal models – data is mixed
cocaine
Cocaine
  • Confounding factors
    • polydrug use (alcohol and nicotine most common – 72% used alcohol; 73% used nicotine 59% used marijuana, 42% used heroin or methadone (n of 101 studies)
    • Sociodemographics
    • data mixed; variations in caregiving – “boarder babies”
crack cocaine
Crack cocaine
  • demographic controls AND crack exposed babies all below “normal” means
  • influence of other drugs…..
  • possible attention problems
cocaine and methamphetamine
cocaine and methamphetamine
  • no classic withdrawal syndrome
    • increased reactivity - cocaine
  • idea of cumulative risk
  • not as much known about methamphetamine –
    • preliminary data that smoked is associated with reduced birth weight
marijuana
marijuana
  • Fried (Ottawa study)
    • data – mixed;
    • possible cognitive effects although varies with age and may be related to polydrug interactions
heroin or other opiates
heroin or other opiates
  • neonatal abstinence syndrome
    • often more protracted for methadone treated infants
      • symptoms: CNS, GI, respiratory and autonomic NS involvement
        • heroin – begins within 24 – 72 hours after birth
        • methadone – sometimes takes longer
          • can also be associated with prolonged abstinence syndrome (up to 8+ months)
ad