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v/;k; 3. xzkeh.k { ks = ij “ kklu pykuk. caxky dh nhokuh feyus ls daiuh dks Qk;nk. 12 vxLr 1765 dks eqxy ckn”kkg “ kkg vkye f} rh ; us daiuh dks caxky dh nhokuh iznku dhA daiuh dh lsuk dk caxky ij , dN = “ kklu LFkkfir gksukA

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V k 3

v/;k; 3

xzkeh.k {ks= ij “kklupykuk


Caxky dh nhokuh feyus ls daiuh dks qk nk

caxky dh nhokuhfeyuslsdaiuhdksQk;nk

  • 12 vxLr 1765 dkseqxyckn”kkg“kkgvkye f}rh; us daiuhdkscaxky dh nhokuhiznkudhA

  • daiuh dh lsukdkcaxkyij ,dN= “kkluLFkkfirgksukA

  • laiw.kZjktuhfrd “kfDrdaiuhdsgkFkksaesavkxbZA

  • uokcviuhvkarfjdvkSjckg~; lqj{kkdsfy, daiuhijiwjhrjglsvkfJrgksx;kA

  • daiuhlh/ksjktLoolwydjusyxhA

  • daiuhdkiqfylvkSjU;kf;d “kfDr;ksaijiwjkfu;a=.k LFkkfirgksx;kA

  • bfrgklesablO;oLFkkdksnksgjh ;k }S/k ljdkjdgktkrkgSA

  • 1765 lsdaiuhHkkjrh; lkeku [kjhnusdsfy, fczVsulslksukvkSjpk¡nhdkvk;krdjrhFkhysfducaxky dh nhokuhfeyuslsizkIrjktLolsghphtsa [kjhnhtkldrhFkhA


Daiuh dks nhokuh feyus ls caxky dh turk ij d k izhkko im s

daiuhdksnhokuhfeyuslscaxky dh turkijD;kizHkkoiM+s\

  • caxky dh turkijvR;kpkjksadk c<+ukA

  • Hkkjhek=k esacaxkyls /kufu’dkluA

  • dkjhxjxkaoNksM+djHkkxusdksetcwjA

  • fdlkuviukyxkuughapqdkikjgsFksA

  • 1770 esaiM+sHk;adjvdkyls ,d djksM+ yksxksa dh ekSrA

  • [ksrhdkpkSiVgksukA


Nksgjh k s k kklu o olfkk dk vfkz

nksgjh ;k }S/k “kkluO;oLFkkdkvFkZ

  • caxkyesadaiuhdksnhouhfeyuslsjktLoolwydjusdkvf/kdkj fey x;kysfduiz”kklu dh ftEesnkjhuokcvkSjmldsinkf/kdkfj;ksas dh FkhA ;kfuiz”kklu dh foQyrkvksadknks’kkjksi.kHkkjrh;ksaijrFkkykHkksadkmi;ksxdaiuhdjrhFkhA


Lfkk h canksclr d k gs

LFkk;hcankscLrD;kgS\

  • 1793 esadaiuh }kjkblsykxqfd;kx;kA

  • jktkvksavkSjrkyqdnkjksadkstehankjksads :iesaekU;rk

  • bUgsafdlkukssalsyxkuolwydjdaiuhdksjktLopqdkusdkftEeklkSaikA

  • jktLoLFkk;h :ils r; djfn;kx;kA

  • c<+rsmRiknulstehankjksadksQk;nkA

  • Hkwfelq/kkjdksizksRlkguA


Lfkk h canksclr ds nq ifj kke

LFkk;hcankscLrdsnq’ifj.kke

  • jktLo dh mPpnjsaA

  • jktLo u pqdkikus dh fLFkfrtehankfj;k¡ uhyke dh xbZ

  • fdlkuksadksyxkupqdkusdsfy, dtZysukiM+rkFkkA

  • fdlkuksadsfy, neudkjhA

  • Hkwfelq/kkj dh vksjdksbZ /;kuughaA

  • fdlkuksadsgkFkksalsviuhiq”rSuhtehufudyukA


Egkyokjh canksclr d k gs

egkyokjhcankscLrD;kgS\

  • gksYVeSdsathukedvaxzst }kjkrS;kjblu;hO;oLFkkdks 1822 esaykxwfd;kx;kA

  • dysDVjksa }kjkxkaoksadknkSjkfd;kx;k]tehu dh tkap dh xbZ] [ksrksadksekikx;kvkSjjktLodk fu/kkZj.kfd;kx;kA

  • jktLoesa le; le; ijla”kks/kuksa dh xqatkb”k j[khxbZ

  • ajktLobdV~BkdjusdkftEektehankjksadsLFkkuijxkaodseqf[k;kdksfn;kx;kA

  • blO;oLFkkdksegkyokjhcankscLrdkukefn;kx;kA


Js rokjh o olfkk d k gs

jS;rokjhO;oLFkkD;kgS\

  • bldksVkWelequjks }kjkfodflrfd;kx;kFkkblfy, blsequjksO;oLFkkHkhdgktkrkgSA

  • blsfczfV”kfu;a=.k okysnf{k.kh Hkkjrh; bykdsesaykxwfd;kx;kA

  • blO;oLFkkesacankscLrlh/kkfdlkuksalsfd;kx;kA

  • jktLo dh njsacgqrÅ¡phgksusdsdkj.kfdlkujktLoughapqdkikjgsFksA

  • jS;rxk¡oNksM+djHkkxjgsFksAxkaoohjkugks x, FksA


Wjksi ds fy qlysa

;wjksidsfy, Qlysa

  • vaxzstksa us xzkeh.kbykdsls u dsoyjktLoolwyfd;kcfYd ;wjksi dh t:jrksa dsfglkclsfdlkuksadksQlysamxkusdsfy, Hkhetcwjfd;kA

  • tSls & caxkyesaiVlu] vleesapk;] la;qDr izkar¼orZeku mRrj izns”k½ esaxUuk] iatkcesaxsgw¡] egkjk’Vª o iatkcesadikl] enzklesapkoyvkfnA


Hkkjrh uhy dh ek x d ksa fkh

Hkkjrh; uhy dh ek¡xD;ksaFkh\

  • Hkkjrnqfu;kesauhydklclscM+k L=ksrFkkA

  • uhydkikS/kkeq[; :ilsm’.kdfVca/kh; bykdksaesaghmxrkgSA

  • diM+kjaxusokysuhydksghilandjrsFksA

  • ;wjksiesaoksMukedikS/kslsfeyusokykuhykjaxHkkjrh; uhy dh rqyukesacstkuvkSjQhdkyxrkFkkA

  • fcVsªuesavkS|ksxhdj.kdk ;qx “kq: gkspqdkFkkA

  • diM+ksa dh jaxkbZ dh ekaxvkSjrsthls c<+us yxhA

  • 1788 esafczVsªu }kjkvk;krfd, x, uhyesaHkkjrh; uhydkfgLlkdsoy 30 izfr”krFkktksfd 1810 esa 95 izfr”krgksx;kA


Js r uhy dh ksrh ls d ksa drjk jgs fks

jS;ruhy dh [ksrhlsD;ksadrjkjgsFks\

  • uhy dh [ksrhdsoymitkÅtehuijgh dh tkldrhFkhA ;kuhfdlkuksadksviuhlclscf<+;k tehuijuhy dh [ksrhdjuhiM+rhFkhA

  • bldsfy, cM+scM+sHkw [k.Mksa dh t:jr gksrhFkhA

  • uhy dh [ksrhvkSjpkoy dh [ksrhdsfy, ,d lkFkgycSyksarFkketnwjksa dh t:jr iM+rhFkhA

  • jS;rksa }kjk ,d ckjdTZkysusij de ls de 25 izfr”krtehuijuhy dh [skrhdjuhgksrhFkhA

  • tehuij ,d ckjuhy dh [skrhdjusdsckn ml ij /kku dh [ksrh ugh dh tkldrhFkhD;ksafdblikS/ks dh tM+sacgqrxgjhgksusdsdkj.kfeV~Vh dh lkjhrkdr [khapysrhFkhA


Uhy fonzksg d k gs

uhyfonzksgD;kgS\

  • ekpZ 1859 esacaxkydsgtkjksajS;rksa us uhy dh [ksrhlsbudkjdjfn;kA

  • jS;rksa us ckxkuekfydkssadksyxkupqdkuslsbudkjdjfn;kA

  • jS;rksa us ryokj] HkkysvkSjrhjdekuysdjuhy dh QSfDVª;ksaijgeykdjus “kq: djfn;kA

  • ckxkuekfydksadsfy, dkedjusokyksadklkekftdcfg’dkjfd;kx;kA

  • yxkuolwyhdjusokysxqek”rk ,tsaVksa dh fiVkbZ dh xbZA


Uhy fonzksg ds dkj k

uhyfonzksgdsdkj.k

  • uhy dh [ksrhvR;arneukRedFkhA

  • jS;rksadksLFkkuh; tehankjksavkSjeqf[k;kvksadkleFkZufeykA

  • ckxkuekfydksa }kjkeqf[k;kvksalstcjuuhydsvuqca/kksaijnLr[krdjk, x,A

  • yksxksaesa ;g [kcjQSyxbZFkhfdjkuhfoDVksfj;k us uhy dh [ksrh u djusdkgqDe ns fn;kgSA

  • dydRrkdsi<+s fy[ksfy[ksyksxksajS;rksa dh nqnZ”kk] ckxkuekfydksa dh tksjtcjnLrhvkSjvR;kpkjdsckjsesafy[kkA


Uhy mriknu ds kkjk kkgh gksus ds dkj k

uhymRiknuds /kkjk”kkghgksusdsdkj.k

  • blO;oLFkk dh tkapdsfy, uhyvk;ksxdkxBu A

  • vk;ksx us ckxkuekfydksadksnks’khik;kx;kA

  • vk;ksx us ekukfduhy dh [ksrhjS;rksadsfy, Qk;nsdklkSnkughaA

  • vk;ksx us jS;rksalsdgkfdekStwnkvuqca/kksadksiwjkdjusdscknvkxslsuhy dh [skrhdjusdsfy, ck/; ughaA

  • 1917 esaegkRekxka/kh us uhyckxkuekfydksads f[kykQvkanksyu dh “kq:vkrdhA

  • blizdkjlsuhydkmRiknu /khjs /khjs /kkjk”kkghgksx;kA


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