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Work Study. Knowledge dealing with the systematic determination of a preferable work method with the time required for the uses of human and equipment to perform such work as well as a development of material & tools to make the established method and time practical. Work Study.

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Work study

Work Study

Knowledge dealing with the systematic determination of a preferable work method with the time required for the uses of human and equipment to perform such work as well as a development of material & tools to make the established method and time practical

Work study

Work Study

Process Analysis

Operation Analysis

(Micro) Motion Study

Time Study

Work Instruction Establishing

Work study

Time Study

Procedure to determine a certain amount of time required to perform a task involving either human or machine under certain standard conditions of measurement

Which consider

Specified work method

Well trained worker

Normal pace


Linked from Motion Study

Work study

Time Study

Concept: A Fair Day’s Work

Required Responsibilities






Work study

Time Study Techniques

  • Direct time study

  • Predetermined time systems (PTS: Work factor, MTM)

  • Standard time data

  • Work Sampling

Work study

Direct Time Study

  • General equipment

  • Stopwatch 1/100 or 1/60

  • Observation sheets

  • Calculator

  • Computer


Time study board

Electronic data collector

Electronic time recorder

Micromotion picture or Video camera

Time study software


Work study

Making a Study (1)


  • Select an operator

  • Make sure the operator will cooperate with the study

  • Collect information about the operation and layout

  • Divide the operation into elements

  • Describe each element in detail

Work study

Operator & The operation


  • A well trained one

  • Morale & Understanding

  • Roles of Supervisor

The Operation

  • Standardized method

  • Proper working environment

  • Smooth equipment operations

Work study

Elements of the operation


  • Headlines of the observation sheet

  • Sketch of the part and the workplace

Operation Breakdown -- Work Element

  • Describe beginning and end points definitely

  • Measurable by stopwatch (0.04 - 0.35 min)

  • Apply rating factor and allowance separately

  • Establish time standard for each element

Work study

Elements of the operation

Types of Element

  • Regular element VS Intermittent element

    happens every cycle

  • Inside work element VS Outside work element

    happens during the machine operation

  • Constant element VS Variable element

    vary with load/ shape of work piece

Work study

Making a Study (2)

Time Recording

  • Make a trial time recording for each elements of the operation (5, 10 cycles)

  • Calculate a sufficient number of cycles for the study

  • Record the time of each elements as per the number of required cycles

  • Ensure the accuracy and confidential level for the representative time of each elements

Work study

Time Recording

Make sure that every parts of the operation are included

For each element

  • Trial reading

  • Required number of cycles

  • Representative time

  • plus/minus 5% Accuracy

  • 95% Confidence level

Stopwatch reading

  • Continuous timing

  • Repetitive timing (snap back)

  • Accumulating timing

Observation sheets

Number of time study readings maytag

X bar

How many observations is enough?

Consider R

Number of Time Study Readings: Maytag

Trial Readings (5 or 10 cycles)

R = Range = Max - Min

X bar = Mean = Average

or (Max + Min)/ 2



5 precision 95 confidence level of the readings
+/- 5% Precision & 95% Confidence Level of the readings

Work study

Representative Time, RT

Assure the total number of observations according to the desired accuracy and confidence level

Normal dist: to estimate RT within 95% CI and 5% accuracy

Representative Time, RT(Selected Timeor Basic Time)

RT = mean / mode of observed times

Work study

Making a Study (3)

Standard Time Calculation

  • Calculate representative time

  • Rate the operator’s performance and apply it to representative time, getting a normal time

  • Calculate allowances

  • Obtain standard time by adding the allowances to normal time

Work study

Performance Rating

To indicate the rating factor, an adjusting factor

Evaluate the operator’s speed for doing such element in relation to the normal speed

Normal Speed, Normal Pace: ???

Work study

Rating Factor: Cautions!!!

  • Normal Pace -- some standard activities

  • Variety of natural speed among people

  • Various available systems, performance rating 100

  • Separately rate on different elements of operation

  • Judgement of the analyst

  • Tailor your own “normal”

Not only the analyst rates the operation, but also the involved operators/mgrs.

Work study

Rating System

  • Skill and Effort

  • Westinghouse System

  • Synthetic

  • Physiological Evaluation of Performance Level

  • Performance Rating

  • Company Standard and etc.

Work study

Rating Scales

Scale A: Normal 100% (0-100-115:145-200)

Scale B: Normal 60 points (0-60-70:87-120)

Scale C: Incentive 125% (0-100-125-200)

Scale D: Incentive 100% (0-80-100-160)

Work study

Normal Time = Representative Time x RF (in %)


Apply Rating Factor

Normal Operator:

A qualified and experienced operator working under customary conditions at the workstation, at a pace neither too fast nor too slow, but representative of average.

Completed Sheet

Work study


Personal : person

Fatigue : working environment , length of period

Delay : equipment, material flow, management

Personal allowances

  • personal needs

  • nature of work

  • 2-5 % of 8 hours, or more?

Work study


Fatigue allowances

  • not necessary happen

  • ILO standard

  • refreshment breaks

Delay allowances

  • avoidable

  • unavoidable

  • allocation techniques

Work study

Standard Time = Normal Time x 100

(100 - AF,in %)

Apply Allowances

Standard Time:

The time that a qualified and well trained operator working at a normal pace will need to complete one cycle of the operation

Standard Time = Normal Time x (1+ AF,in %)

Work study

Normal Time = Representative Time x RF (in %)


Standard Time = Normal Time x 100

(100 - AF,in %)

Direct Time Study: Summary

Representative Time = mean / mode of observed times

Standard Time = Normal Time x (1+ AF,in %)

Work study

Uses of Standard Time

  • Evaluation of alternative methods

  • Labor cost control and manpower planning

  • Overhead cost estimation and budgeting

  • Production scheduling: CPM

  • Production line balancing

  • Plant layout and plant capacity

  • Training and performance evaluation

  • Output-based incentive scheme design

Work study

Work Instruction

Work Study

Motion Study creates preferred method for work so called Standard Method.

Based on standard method, Time Study creates Standard Time.

Work study

Work Instruction



  • Planning & Controlmanpower, line balancing, scheduling, budgeting, plant layout, plant capacity

  • Operating Knowledge

  • Training & Learning

  • Performance Standard & Evaluation

  • Incentive Scheme


Work study

Taxonomy: the guideline







  • MA

  • MF MF MF

  • MF MF MF



  • WM WM

Min Hrs Days Wk Mth Qtr Year