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1. Enabling Activities to Review and Update the National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 4-5 March 2013, Antalya, Turkey. Updating the Inventory on Unintentional POPs (With new Toolkit for Dioxin and Furans). Roland Weber

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1

Enabling Activities to Review and Update the

National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention

on Persistent Organic Pollutants

4-5 March 2013, Antalya, Turkey

Updating the Inventory on Unintentional POPs

(With new Toolkit for Dioxin and Furans)

Roland Weber

POPs Environmental Consulting, Göppingen, Germany

roland.weber10@web.de


Content of Presentation

  • Methodology to Establish Comparable Dioxin Inventories with the UNEP Dioxin Toolkit

  • Updating and Revising Source Inventories and Release Estimates

  • Examples of Updating and Revising Inventories

  • Some Conclusions for Inventory Update


Methodology to Establish

Comparable Dioxin Inventories

with the UNEP Dioxin Toolkit


Stockholm Convention - Article 5 (a) (i) -

Inventory and action plan development

  • Inventory of Dioxin/UPOP sources are developed to identify, quantify and prioritize source of releases

  • The inventory is the basis for the development of strategies with measures, timelines and goals to minimize these releases (Action plan under the NIP).


TOOLKIT FOR IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF RELEASES OF DIOXINS, FURANS, AND OTHER UNINTENTIONAL POPs

  • Emission Factor Methodology for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and other Unintentional POPs

  • Aim to assist parties in establishing release inventories that are consistent in format and content, ensuring that it is possible to compare results, identify priorities, mark progress and follow changes over time at the country level, as well as regional and global levels. (http://toolkit.pops.int/)


Updated Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans, and Other Unintentional POPs

  • Part I General Guidance

  • Data Quality and QA/QC of inventory results

  • Guidance on updating and revising source inventories

  • Reporting of inventory results

  • Part II Default Emission Factors

  • New/revised dioxin emission factors

  • Guidance on estimating activity rates, classification of sources and assigning appropriate emission factors

  • Part III Annexes and Example Inventories

  • Complementary information on the derivation of EF

  • PCB & HCB emission factors for sources with available data

  • Example inventories for each source group

http://toolkit.pops.int/


Toolkit Calculation Methodology Releases of Dioxins, Furans, and Other Unintentional POPs

Calculation of Source Strength (Dioxin release/year):

The basic principle is to gather “activity statistics” which describe the quantity of a process (e.g., tons incinerated; tons steel produced per year), and use “Emission Factors” (EF) which describe release of pollutant to each medium per unit of activity (e.g., µg I-TEQ/ton). Multiplying EF and Activity Rate yields annual releases of a Source (Source Strength).

Annual PCDD/PCDF emission estimate:Source Strength (gram TEQ Dioxin emission per year) = Emission Factor x Activity Rate (1)

(Emission factor = amount PCDD/PCDF/UPOP per ton of feed processed or product produced).

For a country or region: Total annual PCDD/PCDF release = annual releases from all source groups & over all release vectors


Toolkit Calculation Methodology Releases of Dioxins, Furans, and Other Unintentional POPs

  • Activity rates (Amount/Flux from a activity per year: – tonnes produced; waste burned; or m3 emitted):

    • “non-dioxin-like”

    • Country-specific

    • Economic data, statistics

    • the data the task team will gather!

  • Emission factors (gram TEQ Dioxin/t product or; /m3):

    • identical for similar technology

    • default emission factors (provided in Toolkit)

    • own measured data (quality requirement !)


5-Step Approach for Establishment Releases of Dioxins, Furans, and Other Unintentional POPs

of a PCDD/PCDF Inventory

  • Use Screening Matrix as a guide to identify Source Groups present in the country;

  • Use Source Category list to identify specific activities in the country’s Source Group;

3. Obtain information on individual sources to classify these and select emission factors;

4. Quantify identified sources by applying default/measured emission factors;

5. Apply nation-wide to establish full inventory.


Step 1: Main Source Categories Releases of Dioxins, Furans, and Other Unintentional POPs

The first step is checking and identifying the Main Source Categories present in Turkey.

No. Main Source Categories Air Water Land Prod.Residue

1 Waste Incineration X X

  • Ferrous/Non-Ferrous Metal Prod X X

  • Power Generation and Heating X X X

    4 Production of Mineral Products X

    5 Transport X

    6 Uncontrolled Combustion Proc. X X X X

    7 Prod./Use Chem.Cons. Goods X X X

    8 Miscellaneous X X X X

    9 Disposal X X X X

    10 Identification of Potential Hot-Spots X

Sequence does not imply any ranking of Main Source Categories (importance of individual sources will vary from country to country);


Step 2: Identify for each Source Group the source categories/activities in the country


Step 2: Identification of Source Categories: categories/activities in the country

Category 1 – Waste Incineration

Potential Release Route

Source categories of source group 1 Air Water Land Product Residue

1 Waste Incineration X X

a Municipal solid waste incineration X (x) x

b Hazardous waste incineration X (x) x

c Medical waste incineration X (x) x

d Light-fraction shredder incineration X x

e Sewage sludge incineration X (x) x

f Waste wood/biomass incineration X x

g Destruction of animal carcasses X x

For each of the source categories present in the country an estimate of the activity rate need to be made.


Step 2: Identification of Source Categories: categories/activities in the country

Category 1 – Ferrous/Non-Ferrous Metal Production

Potential Release Route

No.Subcategories of Main Category Air Water Land Product Residue

2 Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal Production X X

a Iron ore sintering X x

b Coke production X x x x x

c Iron/steel production and foundries X xd Copper production X xe Aluminum production X x

f Lead production X x

g Zinc production X x

h Brass and bronze production X xi Magnesium production x x x

j Other non-ferrous metal production x x x

k Shredders X x

l Thermal wire reclamation X (x) x x


Dioxin/PCB contamination of meat/milk categories/activities in the country

around EU sinter plant

Around steel plant in Italy PCDD/F & PCB contamin. meat & milk (sheep/goat).

(Diletti et al, Giua et al; Org. Hal Compounds 71; 2009)

  • 1600 sheeps and goats needed to be slaughtered

  • 2012: 20 km restriction zone for cattles.

  • High cancer rates in area


Air emissions of a steel plant (non-BAT; EU E-PRTR data) categories/activities in the country

Capacity:

10-12 Mio tons


Care have to be taken that reduction measures do not focus only on dioxins/UPOPs but that other substances and emissions are considered and reduced together.

Necessity of integrated pollution prevention & control


Step 3: Selection of Emission Factors only on dioxins/UPOPs but that other substances and emissions are considered and reduced together.

For each source category, a range of default emission factors is given reflecting different levels of technology or other parameters controlling Dioxin/UPOP releases.

Category 1b Hazardous Waste Incineration

Emission Factors - g TEQ/t waste


Step 4: Calculation of Releases from Source Categories only on dioxins/UPOPs but that other substances and emissions are considered and reduced together.

Source Category EF Air (µg/t) Flux (t/a) g TEQ/a

1a) Municipal Waste Incineration 22No control 3,500 5,000 17.5

Low technology 350 10,000 3.4

Good comb, APC 30 20,000 0.6

1c) Hospital Waste Incineration 433Batch, no APC 40,000 10,000 400Control. batch, APC 3,000 10,000 30Controlled, APC 525 5,000 2.6

Total release from Waste Incineration to Air 455


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2007) only on dioxins/UPOPs but that other substances and emissions are considered and reduced together.


The baseline release estimate only on dioxins/UPOPs but that other substances and emissions are considered and reduced together. is the first inventory of sources and releases of Annex C POPs elaborated by a Party, usually as part of the National Implementation Plan developed under Article 7

This serves as a baseline against which subsequent updated release estimates are assessed in order toestablish trendsin releases over time andevaluate efficacy/effectivenessof the strategies adopted

Baseline Release Estimates



Establishing Trends in POPs Releases Over Time Estimates

1. Correct and/or adjust initial/previous inventory

1. Examine initial/ previous inventory

2. Review changes in data as compared with initial/ previous inventory

3. Calculate releases

Updating of the inventory (for a particular reference year)

  • FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN RELEASES OVER TIME, e.g.:

  • Economic/demographic growth

  • Changes in technology e.g. phasing in BAT&BEP

  • Building, reconstruction, or close down of production facilities

  • Substitution of fuels and/or raw material

  • Introduction or reconstruction of abatement techniques

  • Check for factors influencing changes in releases over time

  • If sources are reclassified and/or EF have been revised: assign new EF accordingly

  • Identify the approach:

  • Classification of sources and EF used

  • Check for revised/new Toolkit EF

  • Information sources on activity rates

  • If source classification unchanged: use the same EF

  • Reclassify sources according to the present situation

  • Assumptions and expert judgment applied to fill the gaps

  • Establish activity rates for the reference year

  • Multiply EF with new activity rates

  • FACTORS TRIGGERING THE NEED TO REVISE INITIAL/PREVIOUS INVENTORIES, e.g.:

  • Toolkit EF have been changed or new EF added

  • Approach has been changed (e.g. assumptions/expert judgment)

  • Activities/sources:

    • were not identified in the baseline

    • were incorrectly classified

NEED TO REVISE

NEED TO REVISE

Revision of

the initial/previous inventory

CONSISTENT TIME TRENDS

  • Include missing information/ fill gaps

  • Use the revised set of EF for computing releases / apply the same assumptions/expert judgment as in the updated inventory

Source: Stockholm Convention Secretariat


Examples of Updating and Estimates

Revising Inventories


3 Estimates

Example 1: Revised Emission Factor

66% actual decrease

95% decrease

Baseline inventory

[2003 data, Toolkit 2005]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Waste burning

Source class: Uncontrolled domestic waste burning

Activity rate [2003]: 60’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2005]: 300µgTEQ/t

Release to air from open burning of waste: 18 g TEQ/yr

Updated inventory

[2010 data, Toolkit 2013]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Waste burning

Source class: Uncontrolled domestic waste burning

Activity rate [2010]: 20’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 40 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from open burning of waste: 0.8 g TEQ/yr

Revised inventory

[2003 data, Toolkit 2013]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Waste burning

Source class: Uncontrolled domestic waste burning

Activity rate[2003]: 60’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2011]: 40 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from open burning of waste: 2.4 g TEQ/yr

Incorrect assessment

Source: Stockholm Convention Secretariat


Example 2: Additional Class Estimates

Baseline inventory

[2003 data, Toolkit 2005]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Biomass burning

Source class: Agricultural residue burning, impacted

Activity rate [2003]: 4’000’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2005]: 30 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from agricultural residue burning: 120 g TEQ/yr

Updated inventory

[2010 data, Toolkit 2013]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Biomass burn

Source class: Agricultural residue burning, impacted

Activity rate [2010]: 2’000’000t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 30 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from agricultural residue burning: 60 g TEQ/yr

New source class: sugarcane burning

Activity rate [2010]: 2’000’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 4 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from sugarcane burning: 8 g TEQ/yr

Revised inventory

[2003 data, Toolkit 2013]

Source group: Open burning

Source category: Biomass burn

Source class: Agricultural residue burning, impacted

Activity rate [2003]: 3’000’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 30 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from agricultural residue burning: 90 g TEQ/yr

New source class: sugarcane burning

Activity rate [2003]: 1’000’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 4 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from sugarcane burning: 4 g TEQ/yr

increase +8 g TEQ

increase +4 g TEQ

Incorrect assessment

Source: Stockholm Convention Secretariat


Example 3: Missing Sources 1st Inventory Estimates

decrease -0.5 g TEQ

Baseline inventory

[2003 data, Toolkit 2005]

Source group: Waste incineration

Source category: Destruction of animal carcasses

-no information

-releases considered negligible

Updated inventory

[2010 data,Toolkit 2013]

Source group: Waste incineration

Source category: Destruction of animal carcasses

Source class: Old facility, no APCS

New information discovered

Activity rate [2010]: 1’000 t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 500 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from destruction animal carcasses: 0.5 g TEQ/yr

Revised inventory

[2003data,Toolkit2013]

Source group: Waste incineration

Source category: Destruction of animal carcasses

Source class: Old facility, no APCS

Activity rate [2003]: 2’000t/yr

EFAir [Toolkit 2013]: 500 µg TEQ/t

Release to air from destruction of animal carcasses: 1 g TEQ/yr

increase +0.5 g TEQ

Incorrect assessment

Source: Stockholm Convention Secretariat


Same approach needs to be applied consistently in all release estimates to:

Ensure results comparable over time

Enable assessment of consistent time trends

If the approach changes, previous inventories need to be revised by applying the same approach to estimate releases in the reference years

Conclusion – Step forward


Turkey has a good PCDD/PCDF inventory (2007) release estimates to:

Update activity rates of the source categories present

Reclassify sources according to the present situation (appropriate selection of emission factors)

Assess which of new source categories in the new Toolkit are present in Turkey (in particular modifications in category 7)

More elaboration of source group 10 (hot sport). In the first NIP only PCB hot spots were addressed.

Conclusion – Steps forward Turkey


Tesekkür Ederim release estimates to:

Questions ?

http://www.pops.int

ssc@pops.int


Turkey Dioxin Inventory 2007 release estimates to:


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2007) release estimates to:


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2006) release estimates to:

Cat. 3: Ferrous/Non-Ferrous Metal Production


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2006) release estimates to:

Category 3: Heat and Power Generation


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2006) release estimates to:

Category 4: Production of Mineral Products


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2006) release estimates to:

Category 6: Open Burning


PCDD/F Inventory Turkey (2006) release estimates to:

Category 7: Chemicals & Consumer Goods


Metal Industries release estimates to:

Necessity Emission Control

Secondary metal industry is an important part of waste management for each county and a key for recycling of valuable materials.

  • A considerable part of materials processed in the metal industry is hazardous waste (scrap metals containing Pb, Cd, Hg, PCB, E-waste containing BFR)

  • In this sector you have a grey zone between hazardous waste and valuable material.

  • Finally hazardous waste streams (contaminated fly ashes and slags).


Metal Industries release estimates to:

Necessity Emission Control

Example of contaminated site from metal recycling in Germany (Fahlbusch/Rastatt):

  • Secondary copper and zinc smelter contaminated residential area by air emission and water pollution (Dioxins and heavy metals) over decades.

  • Impact on residential areas (houses and gardens).

  • Remediation and securing cost 70 million $.

  • Local government had to pay part of the remediation cost since they gave permissions for the operation.

    Waste management and emission control


Assessment of Dioxin/uPOPs release estimates to:

Contaminated Sites Turkey

  • Industrial activities having potentially resulted in Dioxin/uPOPs contaminated sites in Turkey (cost):

  • Production of EDC/VCM for PVC production

  • Production of chlorine (Chloralkali process)

  • Production of chlorinated pesticides/other organochlorine

  • Application of organochlorines (e.g. PCP for wood preservation; leather treatment)

  • Secondary metal recycling (Al, Cu, Fe, Zn, E-waste etc.)

  • Hazardous landfills

  • Harbours

    Waste management is the key to avoid contaminated sites!

    Series in ESPR:

    http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/11084

    http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/10649


Conclusions release estimates to:

  • Hazardous waste management of e.g. PCB waste oils is one key for protection of Turkish food industry from Dioxin and PCB contamination with potential heath impact and possible financial losses in food export if a contamination is discovered e.g. by EU alert system.

  • Chemical/hazardous landfills need to be considered as constructions built for a limited time which need to be supervised (especially for ground water contamination) and potentially repaired or remediated.


Conclusions release estimates to:

  • Thermal waste treatment facilities (incinerator, gasification, cement killn) are today a key to destroy hazardous waste.

  • Releases from these thermal waste treatment facilities (air emission and solid residues!) need to be controlled not to contaminate environment or create contaminated sites from releases.

  • Care has to be taken to understand waste output of processes/factories and the potential use of waste as products.


Ressources release estimates to:

Information can be found:

POPs and UPOPs inventory

http://www.chem.unep.ch/popshttp://www.pops.int

PRTR inventory

http://www.prtr.net/prtr/index_e.cfm

http://www.unece.org/env/pp/prtr.htm

http://www.unitar.org/cwm/prtr/

http://www.chem.unep.ch/prtr/


MWI release estimates to:

IWI

Small Combusters

Crematories

8000

Electric Arc

Sinter

Zink

Aluminum

6000

Other Sources

Cigaretts

Traffic

4000

Dioxinemission Air (g TEQ/a)

2000

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003*

PCDD/PCDF Inventory Air in Japan


g TEQ/Jahr release estimates to:

70000

PCDD/PCDF in PCP

PCDD/PCDF in CNP

60000

co-PCB

Other Chlororganics

50000

Industrial Waste Incineration

Municipal Waste Incineration

40000

PCP

30000

IWI

CNP

20000

MWI

10000

co-PCB

0

1988

1958

1963

1968

1973

1978

1983

1993

Masunagaet al. 1998

Example for Impact of Application of Chlorinated Aromatics -

Historical PCDD/PCDF Input into the Japanese Environment


PCDD/PCDF Inventories Based on Measurements release estimates to:

  • In developed countries mainly emission to air were measured and included in the inventories.

  • Japan was the first country to set general law regulation for emission to water. Most other countries do not have PCDD/F limit for water.

  • Japan also has emission limits for fly ashes from incineration (3 ng TEQ/g). Most other countries do not have regulations for solids.

  • Provisional low POPs limit Basel C (15 ng TEQ/g).

  • EU has PCDD/F in PRTR (air & water). However only very few reportings.


Toolkit Revisions release estimates to:


The toolkit has undergone several revisions

2003 - 1st release estimates to:edition, issued by UNEP Chemicals

2005 - 2nd edition – also issued by UNEP Chemicals

April 2011 - COP5 adopted revisions recommended by the Toolkit Expert Group

2013 – Latest edition, worked by the Toolkit Expert Group: Substantial revision were made in relation to 2005 edition. An electronic version, more user-friendly, is now available: http://toolkit.pops.int

The Toolkit has Undergone Several Revisions


Main modifications in toolkit 2013 in relation to toolkit 2005

Main Modifications In Toolkit 2013 in Relation to Toolkit 2005

Several changes in Emission Factors, based on new scientific and technical literature

Level of Confidence added for each class

Better description on several classes and guidance on activity rates

Inclusion of new categories and new classes

Example inventories for each source group


Modifications by source group

Source Group 1 – Waste Incineration 2005

No changes to EF, nor to source classification

Source Group 2 - Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metal Production:

Several important changes in EFs; category “m” renamed category “l” and its title renamed “Thermal wire reclamation and e-waste recycling”. New class added on category “l”: Class 2 - Open burning of circuit boards; classes 2 and 3 renamed class 3 and class 4 respectively.

Modifications by Source Group


Modifications by source group1

Source Group 3 - Heat and Power Generation: changes in EFs, inclusion of ten new classes

Source Group 4 – Production of Mineral Products: changes in EFs in one category (Brick Production)

Modifications by Source Group


Modifications by source group continued

Source Group 5 – Transport: inclusion of ten new classes

Added EF for 4-stroke engines unleaded gasoline with catalyst

New class created: “Ethanol with catalyst”

New class also on diesel vehicles: “Biodiesel”

New EF for heavy oil fired engines

Modifications by Source Group - continued


Modifications by source group continued1

Source Group 6 - Open Burning Processes: inclusion of ten new classes

- inclusion of a new class (sugarcane burning) with specific EFs; important changes in EFs e.g. Forest fire, grassland and savannah fires, fires at waste dumps, open burning of domestic waste.

Modifications by Source Group - continued


Modifications on source group 7 production and use of chemicals and consumer goods

This group has undergone the most substantial changes. inclusion of ten new classes

Category a: Pulp and paper mills: change in EFs and inclusion of a new class of power boilers (Power boilers fueled with salt-laden wood)

Modifications on Source Group 7 - Production and Use of Chemicals and Consumer Goods


Modifications on source group 7 continued

Category b: Chemical industry: was split into four categories with new EFs

Cat. b: Chlorinated inorganic chemicals. And a new class added (chloralkali production using titanium electrodes)

Cat. c: Chlorinated aliphatic chemicals. ECD/VCM/PVC production was split into four subcategories (vent and liquid-vent combustors, spent catalyst residue, production processes according to technology used, and PVC only)

Modifications on Source Group 7 - continued


Modifications on source group 7 continued1

Cat. d: Chlorinated aromatic chemicals. It was split into several subcategories according to substance/product produced. It was eliminated some chemicals production and added new ones. EFs were changed in several cases.

Cat. e: Other chlorinated and non-chlorinated chemicals. New chemicals were added (TiCl4 and TiO2; Caprolactam)

Modifications on Source Group 7 – continued


Modifications on source group 7 continued2

Category c – Petroleum industry (refineries) renamed category f – Petroleum refining. A new subcategory added (Production processes) split in three classes (Catalytic reforming unit; Coking unit; Refinery-wide wastewater treatment )

Category d – Textile Production renamed category g and a new class added (mid range technology)

Category e – Leather refining renamed category h

Modifications on Source Group 7 – continued


Modifications on source group 8 miscellaneous

Category a: Drying of biomass includes changes in classes, according to fuel condition (contamination degree) with new EFs.

Category e: Tobacco smoking ; Activity rates basis altered to “per million items” instead of “per item”, and EFs unity changed accordingly, in order to maintain uniformity in the Toolkit.

Modifications on Source Group 8 Miscellaneous


Modifications on source group 9 disposal landfill

Modifications on Source Group 9 according to fuel condition (contamination degree) with new EFs.Disposal/Landfill

Changes in EFs, and one more class added in Category a - Landfills, Waste Dumps and Landfill Mining

New description on almost all classes in order to make it more clear.

Elimination of one class in Category d – Composting, together with changes in EFs on the two classes left.


Establishing Trends in POPs Releases Over Time according to fuel condition (contamination degree) with new EFs.

1. Correct and/or adjust initial/previous inventory

1. Examine initial/ previous inventory

2. Review changes in data as compared with initial/ previous inventory

3. Compute releases

Updating of the inventory (for a particular reference year)

  • FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN RELEASES OVER TIME, e.g.:

  • Economic/demographic growth

  • Changes in technology e.g. phasing in BAT&BEP

  • Building, reconstruction, or close down of production facilities

  • Substitution of fuels and/or raw material

  • Introduction or reconstruction of abatement techniques

  • Check for factors influencing changes in releases over time

  • If sources are reclassified and/or EF have been revised: assign new EF accordingly

  • Identify the approach:

  • Classification of sources and EF used

  • Check for revised/new Toolkit EF

  • Information sources on activity rates

  • If source classification unchanged: use the same EF

  • Reclassify sources according to the present situation

  • Assumptions and expert judgment applied to fill the gaps

  • Establish activity rates for the reference year

  • Multiply EF with new activity rates

  • FACTORS TRIGGERING THE NEED TO REVISE INITIAL/PREVIOUS INVENTORIES, e.g.:

  • Toolkit EF have been changed or new EF added

  • Approach has been changed (e.g. assumptions/expert judgment)

  • Activities/sources:

    • were not identified in the baseline

    • were incorrectly classified

NEED TO REVISE

NEED TO REVISE

Revision of

the initial/previous inventory

CONSISTENT TIME TRENDS

  • Include missing information/ fill gaps

  • Use the revised set of EF for computing releases / apply the same assumptions/expert judgment as in the updated inventory

Source: Stockholm Convention Secretariat


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