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Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades. IDENTIFICATIONS Capetians William the Conqueror Battle of Hastings (1066) Otto I Crusades. OUTLINE Spread of Christianity Rise of Nation States France England Germany Crusades. Spread of Christianity. France, 12th Century.

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Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades

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Rise of Nation-States & the Crusades

IDENTIFICATIONS

Capetians

William the Conqueror

Battle of Hastings (1066)

Otto I

Crusades

  • OUTLINE

  • Spread of Christianity

  • Rise of Nation States

    • France

    • England

    • Germany

  • Crusades


Spread of Christianity


France, 12th Century


The Capetians(987-1328)

Hugh Capet (Ruled: 987-996)

In 987, permanent shift of the kingship from the Carolingians to the Capetians

Hugh was determined to make the crown hereditary

Had eldest son ‘associated’ to him, i.e. recognized as heir by noblity


Emergence of England

Achieves political unity much earlier than France

1066, crisis develops when Edward the Confessor dies

Edward named Harold II (Godwinson) as his successor

Rival is William, duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror, William I)

Battle of Hastings (1066)


William I (1066-1087)

Centralized kingdom

Placed Norman order upon England

William was the first ruler to show how feudal principles could be used as the foundation for a strong, centralized monarchy


Medieval Germany

In contrast to England & France, local feudal lords retained significant power in Germany, which hindered attempts at achieving a unified nation-state


Germany in the Middle Ages


Germany, 12th century


Medieval Germany

  • In contrast to England & France, local feudal lords retained significant power in Germany, which hindered attempts at achieving a unified nation-state

  • Otto I (912-973)

  • Refounded the Holy Roman Empire

  • 962 – Crowned Emperor

  • Salian Dynasty (est. 1024)

  • Henry III (r. 1039-56) imperial control over the Church is at its apex


Clunaic Reforms and Medieval Society

  • Church Reform in the 11th and 12th centuries

  • Papacy of Innocent III

  • Impact of Emphasis on Spirituality: New Orders

  • High Medieval Society (ca.1000 – 1300)


Church Reform in the 11th & 12th Centuries

  • Practices open to dispute

    • Investiture

    • Concubinage

    • Simony

  • The Monastery at Cluny (@ 910)

  • Papal Support: Leo IX and Nicholas II

  • Gregory VII (1073-1085), Henry IV (1056-1106) and the Investiture Struggle


Spread of Islam (7th & 8th c.)


First Crusade (1095-1099)

Byzantine Empire under attack from Muslim Turks

1071 – Battle of Manzikert, Turks capture Jerusalem

1094 – Alexis I appealed to Pope Urban II for help

1095 – Urban II’ speech at Clermont

1096 – Peasants’ Crusade

1096 – Official crusade launched

1099 – Crusaders capture Jerusalem


First Crusade (1096-99)


Second Crusade (1147–49)

1147 – Muslims defeat Europeans at Edessa, which catalyzed the 2nd Crusade

Preached by Bernard of Clarivaux

Unmitigated disaster for the crusaders

Crusades now included an expansionist mission in addition to a pilgrimage

Origin of Military Orders: Templars, Hospitalers, Teutonic Knights


Third Crusade (1188-1192)

Muslim leader Saladin reconquers Egypt and most crusading states

1187 – Conquers Jerusalem, which precipitated the 3rd Crusade

Byzantium makes a pact with Saladin

Crusade disintegrated through lack of cooperation


Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

Pope Innocent III organized crusade under papal auspices

Crusaders never reached the Holy Land

Diverted by Venetians

Byzantium victim of the 4th Crusade

Cause: dynastic intrigue & greed

1204, Crusaders sacked Constantinople


Crusades


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