Using Satellites to Address Issues Related to Transboundary Waters, Droughts, Floods, and Climate Change in Africa and Asia. World Water Week Stockholm. Sweden September 5, 2013 Rick Lawford (MSU) David Toll (NASA) (with thanks to many NASA-funded investigators whose work is cited ).
Transboundary Waters, Droughts, Floods, and
Climate Change in Africa and Asia
World Water Week
September 5, 2013
Rick Lawford (MSU)
David Toll (NASA)
(with thanks to many NASA-funded investigators whose work is cited)
Africa is an area of special interest because the needs of some nations
are large and the developed world can all contribute to this region
without stepping into another major Space Agency’s “territory”.
Asia is an area of special interest because 60% of the world’s population
lives in this area and are affected by the extremes and climate changes that
are taking place there.
GEO Water in Africa GEO Water in Asia
NASA: SERVIR and WISP NASA: SERVIR
ESA: TIGER ESA: DRAGON
Japan: AfWCCI Japan: AWCI
Transboundary River Basins
Asia and Africa have a large number of transboundary basins
which complicate water management
In practice, while some nations basin-wide planning is done in some
TB basins, the sharing of information and data is limited in many other
Goal: improved hydrometeorological information for research, planning, and water management in the Nile basin.
Long-term satellite data records which are continuous in space, land data assimilation products, and hydrological model outputs provided data that helped in the design of a plan for hydropower station.
Coping with drought impacts to information-sharing
support food security
Many parts of Africa are threatened by drought and the associated food shortages. With effective monitoring and prediction it is possible for Aid Agencies to ensure that food is available at the right locations when it is needed. FEWSNET (USAID, USGS) has been providing monitoring and forecast information for a number of years.
Satellite remote sensing and land data assimilation fill gaps in areas with sparse in-situ measurement networks, and provide the basis for early detection of agricultural drought
(after J. Verdin)
Food prices determine the cost of food aid.
WRSI = f (ppt, pet, WHC, Crop Type, SOS, EOS, LGP)
Kc - FAO
FAO soils map
FEWS NET – Food Security Outlook Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI)
Food Security Situation: March 2011
needs not met,
food deficits in
Current status (Mar)
Food Security & Nutrition Working Group
Central and East Africa
The Famine Early Warning Systems Network Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI)
Red – Current countries
Yellow – Weather/agricultural outcomes & availability/access monitoring
Green – Weather/agricultural outcomes
Adapting to Climate Change Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI)
The accumulated snow water varies
considerably from year to year. With climate
change new trends with lower accumulations
are expected to emerge
The Hindu Kush -Himalayan (HKH) region, which
extends 3,500 km and includes many mountain
glaciers, is the source of the 10 major
rivers in Asia.
Snow Water Volume Charts
Snow Accumulation/Depletion Curves
Information for reducing flood risk users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
John Bolten (PI), Code 617, NASA GSFC users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
Figure 1. The Mekong River Basin
Figure 4. USGS co-investigators are building a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) to work in concert with the output of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model.
Floods: Satellite users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resourcesdata are critical pre-event, during flood
events and for post-event flood response
Pre-event: The saturation of the soil and the water stored in reservoirs either serve as storage areas for excess precipitation or they aggravate flooding conditions be enabling more water to run off
Precipitation measurements will allow
better estimates of the rainfall amounts and
more accurate flood forecasts. (e.g., TRMM
rainfall over North Korea - Adler)
Post-event: The SWOT mission holds
promise of enabling emergency managers
to get better information on inundated areas
and thereby help in cleanup operations.
Information services for the MENA users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
MENA – Area with Special Needs users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
Water Information System Planning: users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
Mapping water stress in the MENA
USAID with World Bank Water Availability Using a NASA
Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) for the ‘MENA’
Matt Rodell, John Bolten, David Toll, Shahid Habib (NASA/GSFC), Edwin Engman (NASA/GSFC/SAIC), Joseph Nigro (NASA/GSFC/SSAI), and Mutlu Ozdogan (U. Wisconsin)
GRACE terrestrial water storage
NASA, USAID-’OMEP’, ICBA (International Center for Biosaline and Agriculture) and regional partners teamed to provide regional water resources assessments Using Satellite Data and Land Data Assimilation Systems.
Summary users to monitor the impact of these trends on water resources
Over the past two decades major advances have been
made in the production of useful data products from
water-related satellite data and in their application to
delivering aid and other benefits to societies in Asia
Over the next decade we can expect more advances in
the development of platforms and applications that
will make these data available to people in every
walk of life throughout Asia and Africa thus facilitating
“societal transformation through information.”