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COSMOLOGY. International Meeting of Fundamental Physics (“Winter” meeting) Santiago de Compostela, 2007. Eduard Mas só UAB/IFAE. Program. The standard cosmological model The observed universe Inflation. Neutrinos in cosmology. Emphasis on “Particles”. Science, vol. 315, 2007.

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COSMOLOGY

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Cosmology

COSMOLOGY

International Meeting of Fundamental Physics

(“Winter” meeting)

Santiago de Compostela, 2007

Eduard Massó

UAB/IFAE


Program

Program

The standard cosmological model

The observed universe

Inflation. Neutrinos in cosmology

Emphasis on “Particles”


Science vol 315 2007

Science, vol. 315, 2007


Our universe is expanding

lights-years

ago

Our universe is expanding

co-moving

distance

scale

today

redshift


Co moving co ordinates

Co-moving co-ordinates

On top: peculiar (real) velocities


Hubble s law cosmological principle

Hubble’s law & Cosmological principle

Cosmological principle

Universe homogenous & isotropic

on large scales

Hubble parameter

(today)

Hubble’s discovery

Hubble’s law:


Expansion or contraction is inevitable

RG

+

CP

Expansion (or contraction) is inevitable

Robertson-Walker metric

(homogeneity & isotropy)

Parameters:

Content

(matter+radiation)

Content too

(cosm. const.)

Parameters

are related

by eqs.

Spatial geometry


Cosmological equations

Friedmann eqs.

Cosmological equations

1

2a

1+2a -> 2b


Spatial geometry light propagation

Spatial geometry &Light propagation

Open

Closed

FLAT

3D


Spatial geometry light propagation1

Spatial geometry &Light propagation


Luminosity distance

Absolute luminosity

E/time in rest frame

Luminosity distance

Measured flux

(E/time/area)

Luminosity distance


Hubble s law

Hubble’s law

Exact:

Small z

Deceleration

parameter

That was kinematics


Cosmological constant contribution

Cosmological constant contribution

Negative

pressure

+ any other component


Solution to cosmological eqs

Solution to cosmological eqs.

Equation of state

Assume i - dominance and

RD universe

MD universe.

CCD universe


Critical density

Critical density

Define

Define also

(Today)

Not energy-density contribution


Rewriting friedmann eqs

Rewriting Friedmann eqs.

Cosmic sum rule

2a today

Notice signs


The future

EE

EE

R

R

Diff. eq.

The future

+ Initial conditions

taken today

Eternal Expansion OR Recollapse ?

1

2

3


Distance redshift

Distance - Redshift

Co-moving distance to source:

Where:

Can neglect

Distance-redshift relation is function of


Age of the universe

Age of the universe

look-back time

lifetime

Flat univ.

Our univ.

(Age crisis: Open universe gave too low lifetime)


Which universe

Which universe ?


The past universe

nucleosynthesis

The past universe

rad

recombination

mat

cc

equality

today

next


The hot universe

Equilibrium thermodynamics

The hot universe

g= deg. of freedom

number density

energy density

pressure

distribution


Decoupling of species

rates

Decoupling of species

Expansion:

Interaction:


Phase transitions symmetry restoring

Phase transitionsSymmetry restoring

2n order


Phase transitions

Phase transitions

1st order


Conformal time

Conformal time


Particle horizon

It is the physical distance photons can travel until a time t

Particle Horizon

Defines causal distance at a given time t


Program1

Program

The standard cosmological model

The observed universe

Inflation. Neutrinos in cosmology


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